After the hour, bigger and Max are summoned to the courthouse and the judge quickly sentences Bigger Thomas to death. At last, the mob becomes jubilant and they are sated because the judge has accommodated justice by speeding the process of execution, as Bigger's appeal seems unlikely. Max is more perturbed than Bigger, who is to be executed "on or before midnight Friday, march third." Bigger has tried to remain dispassionate but his spirit falters as his mind tries to sort out the reeling, whirlwind activity of the last few days. To recapitulate: On a saturday, bigger learned that he would have a job as a chauffeur for a millionaire family; he takes the job after rejecting the temptation to rob Blum's deli. Early sunday morning, bigger returns Mary dalton to her home, accidentally suffocating her. Later Sunday, bigger visits Bessie, forges a ransom note, discovers the "discovery" of Mary's earrings in the ash, returns to bessie and rapes and kills her. Monday, bigger is on the run and he is caught that very night. His inquest is on a tuesday, his trial is on a wednesday, and his execution is to be "on or before midnight Friday.
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The State Attorney does, however, shield himself from any potential accusations of inhumane or bloodthirsty vengeance. He reminds the court that sympathy belongs with the young, innocent, vulnerable victims of Bigger's crimestwo rape/murders within twenty-four hours. Even if Bigger killed because of a statement racist vendetta, how are the rapes or Bessie's murder explained? Lastly, buckley mentions Mrs. Thomas, a decent God-fearing woman whose hard work and faith were of little aid in her efforts to curb Bigger's wayward ways. Indeed, bigger is thoroughly corrupted and irremediable. From the media editorials, from the mouths of his State psychologists and now, from Buckley himself comes the conclusion that death is the only tolerable "fate" for the twenty-year-old chauffeur, bigger Thomas. The mandate to "crush the woolly head of that black lizard is one of Buckley's final exhortations. After the closing arguments of a hastened trial (this has all occurred in the span of consecutive days) the judge announces that he will take one hour of deliberations and there is little that Max can do to alter the course of events. He accompanies Bigger to his prison cell and makes an almost superhuman effort to have hope in its glaring absence.
At one point, buckley opens a window so that the judge might hear the clamor for "justice." While this judge is less tendentious than the inquest judge, buckley is allowed to call his sixty witnesses, including over a dozen newspapermen, gh, gus, jack, jan and. In contrast, max's defense is a soliloquy that is as passionate as it is misguided. After Buckley has roused the passions of the racist mob, max decries the very racism and misplaced passion that fuel Buckley's unjust cries for "justice." Max argues that racism, fear and the feudal relationship of Bigger to his landlord Daltons have all mitigated Bigger's motive. Max hopes that the judge might look beyond race prejudice and take a step in the direction of a greater understanding of race in America. After making his case, max tells Bigger that he did the best he could. Buckley swiftly derides Max's rhetoric as Communist propaganda and proclaims that Bigger's death is the necessary thing for justice and humanity in America. If Bigger is not killed, the law will have been mutilated and justice will have returned to the people best void. Buckley maintains that the law is "holy" and that the court must "let law take its course." Buckley does not hide the fact that for both himself and the judge, there are high political stakes involved.
Max seeks to convince bigger that he is different and Bigger is admittedly moved pdf that Jan does not hate him. Max explains that the trial verdict will be delivered by a judge and not by a jury and that Bigger will plead guilty, rather than Not guilty, hoping for life imprisonment rather than the death penalty. The city is tense and the governor has ordered troops to move into Chicago to calm the mobs. Several of these troops escort Bigger to the courthouse. Bigger can see ma in the courtroom crowd and she is heartbroken when she hears the litany of offenses, punctuated by her son's "Guilty" plea. Buckley argues that the defense is trying to enter a plea of insanity coupled with a guilty plea and Max insists that this is not the case and that Bigger's motives might reasonably lessen or extend the sentence that he receives. Buckley responds that he will call sixty witnesses for the prosecution and many of his antics are an effort to intimidate the judge by stoking the mob outside.
Max remains optimistic and he hopes that Bigger will have some faith in him. Bigger sees that he is living in a no man's Land and even as he answers the sum of Max's questions, he feels Max's condescension and feels distance. Max focuses on Mary's rape and is puzzled when Bigger explains that he did not rape mary, he did kill her by accident and he hated her even though she didn't do anything to him. As for Bessie, bigger explains that he neither loved nor hated her; his hate is reserved for whites mostly, because they "own every thing" and prevent him from being able to live freely. He is told to "stay in a spot" and Bigger confesses that he was simply unable to live that sort of life adding that after committing the murders, he felt a sort of freedom that he had not experienced. In his conversation, bigger also explains that he is not religious and he would never let himself become so "poor" that he had to rely upon happiness in another world to guide him through the present world. Bigger insists that he will never believe in God and then changes to topic to mary dalton, explaining that he had to kill her because "she was killing him." Bigger rambles on to explain how the communists and race leaders have done little for him.
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Max is for more vocal when. Dalton is placed on the stand and he exposes the exorbitant rents and segregating practices and policies of the dalton's south Side realty company. Dalton admits that he simply assumed that blacks were happier living in their own neighborhoods and after he prides himself on helping his employees get an education, he admits that he has never offered employment to any educated blacks. Soon after this, the State offers Bessie's body as a piece of evidence indicating Bigger's criminal mentality. This stokes the mob's fury because it was a previously unknown piece of information. The Grand Jury easily finds enough information to warrant Bigger's criminal trial and several spectators chant: "Burn that black ape." After the inquest, prosecutors take bigger to the dalton mansion, lead him to mary's room and try to intimidate him into showing them the mechanics.
Bigger will not oblige, saying "you can't make me do nothing but globalisering die.". Bigger is returned to his cell, but on the trip to the jail, bigger sees a throng of ku klux Klansmen who are burning a large wooden cross. They are delighted when they make eye contact with Bigger and he is confused by the burning cross and thinks that the reverend has tricked him into a trap. Enraged, bigger throws his cross away and after a prison guard tries to explain to bigger that the cross around his neck is his only hope and that it is "God's cross" and not the Klan's cross, bigger again throws the cross away. Bigger is soon joined in his cell by another young black man who has gone insane. He was a student at a local university and "too much reading" caused him to lose his mind. When Max returns to see bigger, bigger tries to convince the lawyer that the case was already lost and that there is nothing that can be done.
Buckley suggests that Bigger's only way out is to confess, admit who helped him commit the crimes and settle for spending the rest of his life in a "hospital." Bigger is piqued and he confesses to the crime, denying his insanity and the existence. Buckley is joined by a "man with a pad" who records Bigger's confession and after they leave, bigger is alone in his cell. He hears them joking outside the cell about how "easy" it was to record Bigger's self-betrayal. They expected that he would be harder. Hearing the reality of his own self-failure, bigger sobs in his prison cell. The next morning, as Bigger is lead to his inquest, a member of the mob strikes Bigger in the temple and he is wounded.
The theatrics continue in the inquest. Dalton begins sobbing in the witness box when she discusses her family history and identifies the heirloom earring that was found in the ashes of her furnace. She adds that her family has given 5 million to various charitable causes. Jan is the next witness and he tries to evade buckley's belligerent and insinuating questions. Jan and Bigger's lawyer, max, argue that the State Attorney is trying to indict an entire political party as well as an entire race. Buckley is permitted to continue with few restrictions and he twists Jan's answers to cast aspersions on his character, suggesting that Jan offered. Mary dalton as Bigger's reward for joining the party's efforts. Buckley also suggests that the content of the communist pamphlets induced Bigger to rape and murder Mary dalton.
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Ma's groveling only intensifies Bigger's feelings of shame and he is relieved when Gus, gh and Jack escort ma, vera write and Buddy back to their home. After the reverend, jan and the daltons exit the cell, bigger is alone with Buckley and he succumbs to the State Attorney's intimidation. Buckley warns Bigger that it will be better for him to confess. He describes Bigger as a wayward youth who has broken his mother's heart and surely, if he might escape the justice of the state, he would meet a far worse fate at the hands of the angry, frothing mob that is only growing. Buckley tells database Bigger that the authorities have found Bessie, and she did not die from the brick blows that Bigger delivered. The police know that Bigger raped her and that he threw her body in an airshaft. Bigger thought that Bessie was dead but she was able to crawl for a small distance, regaining consciousness only to die of hypothermia, freezing in the blizzard.
Bigger wants to be unencumbered and he is only irked by ma's pleading questions if there is "anything" that she can do to help ups him. Bigger replies that he is fine and that he will be out of jail in no time. His mother's face is incredulous and Bigger realizes that this is one of the few times in his life where admitting the ugly truth is better than sugarcoating reality. Ma gives Bigger another chance to answer her question and he responds that there is nothing that she can. Ma is rather unaware of the other people in the cell and she has a personal conversation with Bigger telling him to "go to god." Bigger replies that ma should "forget" him, but ma insists that all she has are her three children, not just. Eventually, bigger promises to "try" to pray and this is all that ma has to sustain her faith. When ma learns that the two people in the back of the cell are. Dalton, she grovels at their feet, sobbing and begging for her son to be spared the electric chair. The daltons insist that Bigger's fate is out of their hands but they will make sure that ma, vera and Buddy are not evicted from their 8/week apartment, as they are no longer able to pay.
as already caught so he might as well confess. Dalton agrees and hints that things might be "easier" for Bigger if he says all that he knows and reveals the identity of his accomplices. Dalton, arguing that Bigger's crime couldn't be prevented by the dalton's generous donation of Ping-Pong tables for the south Side recreational center. Jan says that Bigger's crime testifies to a "fundamental" problem in America. At this point, bigger, jan, reverend Hammond,. Dalton and State Attorney buckley are joined by ma, vera, buddy, gus, gh and Jack, all of whom crowd into bigger's jail cell (!) ma is sobbing and Bigger feels guilty and is unable to look at her. Buddy is as rash and youthful as Bigger and he assures Bigger that he will defend his innocence and get a gun and kill four of five people himself. Buddy's comment is not accepted well and after Bigger learns that Vera is ashamed to go to school because her classmates mock her, he feels a mixture of hate and shame. He is ashamed of what he has done to his family, but he hates them for existing.
Soon after arriving at the inquest, bigger faints and this only stokes the hysteria that the journalists are fueling. Bigger awakens to find that he is again behind bars and his mother's minister, reverend professional Hammond, arrives to visit Bigger in his prison cellat ma's request. The reverend urges Bigger to "turn to jesus!" and in his rambling sermon, hammond hopes to offer Bigger some hope of salvation and heaven, for he will surely be executed and in not very much time. Bigger resists the reverend's invitation to salvation and after becoming frustrated with Bigger's obstinate antics, the reverend intends to leave the boy, but not before setting a wooden cross necklace around Bigger's neck. As reverend Hammond prepares to leave, jan Erlone arrives and Bigger is surprised that Jan is willing to talk to hi and is also willing to "apologize" to bigger. Even though Jan does not understand Bigger's emotions and motives, he does understand that Bigger is partially reacting to his social condition. Jan explains that as a result of lynching, so many black families have suffered and he and his Communist friend Max want to help Bigger. Jan knows that Bigger simply sees him as a "white face" but he hopes that Bigger might also see him as an "honest face." Certainly, the reverend is impressed with Jan's candid apology.
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Book three: Fate, summary: book three opens in the 11th Street Police Station where. Bigger Thomas is detained. Bigger has not eaten, his eyes are sunken and he is trying to assert "his own will" despite the horrible situation that his accidental murder has produced. Musing over his fear of death, bigger decides that he was "born unlucky" and amid the crowd that surrounds him in the police station, bigger is easy to find the faces of Jan,. Bigger's overriding emotion is a feeling of shame and as he struggles in and out of consciousness, he notices that his fingernails have been ripped out. After he is fully conscious, bigger wishes he were already in the electric chair. An angry white mob has invaded the police station and when Bigger is taken to his inquest, they deride him as an "ape" and a "jungle beast." everyone is well aware of the reality that Bigger Thomas will resumes definitely suffer under the death penalty.