Mary barton was her first novel, published in 1848 with a subtitle, 'a tale of Manchester Life' and sticks to the victorian concern of presenting the daily life of the middle class. Cranford came next in the form of a serial and was edited by dickens for the magazine called household Words. It was received positively and Gaskell gained immediate popularity for. It centered on women characters like mary Smith, miss Deborah and the others. However the book was also critiqued for its lack of a significant story line. She was also famous for her gothic style in some of her works and this made gaskell slightly different from other novelist of her time. Ruth, sylvia's lovers, wives and daughters were other significant works by her. George Eliot, perhaps the one most famous women writers, george Eliot still maintains a canonical status.
Tips on English Literature essay writing (A level) - the Student room
His stand did not change with time and lends to a social criticism and commentary of a very different sort in his works. Catherine, a shabby genteel Story, the book of Snobs are some of his other works. 1.2 Women novelists of the victorian Era. The era saw a proliferation of women writers. The novel as myth a genre was initially seen as feminine literature and as the literacy rate among women increased, a new need for women writers catering to this segment was answered by these writers. Gaskell, elizabeth Gaskell, popularly called Mrs. Gaskell wrote short stories and novels that dealt with presenting a social picture of her society in the 1850s. While it was a time when doubts about material progress reaching the actual lives of the ordinary man were starting to be raised, gaskell mostly gave an optimistic view of the time. Gaskell's North and south for example, seeks to present an answer to division and difference by presenting a form of a social reconciliation. There is an attempt at reconciliation of many divergent streams in the novel.
Even, dobbin, a middle class character in Vanity fair, is not completely granted hero status and a tone of criticism lingers on the fuller character throughout the work. In The history of Henry Esmond, Thackeray deals with questions of not only of the concerns of society at large but also of individual identity. While most writers supported the idea of innate goodness in the individual human self, Thackeray differed. For example the character of Henry Esmond is also not a completely positive character and the negatives of his self, is perhaps Thackeray's critique of Victorian emphasis on the individual. An individualism that focused on personal virtue and morality is seen as Thackeray to at the risk of selfishness bordering on narcissism and self-absorption. His discontent with his age became more vocal in later works like phillip and The new Comes. While the former is injected with autobiographical accounts and is goes back to the satirical tone of Vanity fair, the latter is a harsh critique of the material greed of the age and a critique of the contemporary culture of the age. As a result of his strong opinions of his society and its issues, and a critical rejection of the dominant concerns found in works of other writers of the same age, thackeray stands in isolation as an outsider to this circle due his skepticism.
He did not readily accept the changing values of the age. His work is seen almost as a reactionary voice. Vanity fair for example has the subtitle 'a novel without a hero' and in a period where other writers usually embarked on a portrayal of the coming of age of a hero, thackeray himself very deliberately opposes. While the protagonist of Dickens' david Copperfield invites the reader to identify with him, Thackeray's Becky sharp is the conniving, cynical and clever. Even his novel Pendennis, is a complete opposite of the novel david Copperfield, although both were summary published the same year. Thackeray did not identify with the middle class because hence his novels lack a middle class hero. When novels were catering to reassure middle class self-worth, Thackeray denied to give that assurance.
In 1836, before Oliver Twist, his serials of Pickwick papers were published which led him to instant recognition and popularity. It started the famous Victorian mode of serial novels which dominated the age till the end of the century. It not only made the reader anxious for the next serial to come and spread the popularity of the book itself, but also gave the writer a chance to alter his work according to the mood and expectation of his audience. His works enjoyed continuous popularity and acceptance and Dickens as a writer became famous for his wit, satire, social commentary and his in depth characters. Bleak house, a christmas Carroll, david Copperfield, Great Expectations are some of his other great works. 1.1.4 William makepeace Thackeray: English Victorian Writer. Thackeray was born in Calcutta, india and was also an important writer but one who expressed his age very differently from Dickens and other writers. He is most noted for his satirical work vanity fair that portrays the many myriads of English society. Although he was seen as equally talented as Dickens, but his views were deemed old-fashioned which hindered his popularity.
How to Write an Essay - university of Warwick
The novel as a form became the medium where such concerns were raised. 1.1.3 Charles Dickens: a popular Victorian Author. In the same year that queen Victoria ascended the throne, charles Dickens published the first parts of his novel Oliver Twist, a story of an orphan and his struggle with poverty in the early part of the century. As the Industrial revolution surged on, the class difference between the traditional aristocracy and the middle class was gradually getting reduced and with the passing of the reform Act, the middle class got the right to vote and be politically engaged in the affairs. While the aristocracy criticized the work that the bourgeoisie had to do in the factories and the industries, to maintain the supremacy that they about had the privilege of, the middle class in response promoted work as virtue. The result of this led to a further marginalization of those struck by poverty and were part of neither groups. The poor Law that was passed made public assistance available to the economically downtrodden only through workhouses where they had to live and work.
The conditions of these workhouses were deliberately made to be unbearable so as to avoid the poor from becoming totally dependent on assistance from outside. Families were split, food was inedible, and the circumstances were made inhospitable to urge the poor to work and fight a way through poverty. However, these ultimately became a web difficult to transgress and people chose living in the streets rather than seeking help from a workhouse. Dickens was aware of these concerns as a journalist and his own life and autobiographical experiences entered the novel through Oliver Twist. His novel enters the world of the workhouses, the dens of thieves and the streets and highlights that while there was economic prosperity on one side, there was poverty on the other and while morality, virtue were championed, hypocrisy was equally a part of society. His social commentary entered the world of his fiction.
The growth of cities, a ready domestic market and one in the oversea colonies and an increase in printing and publishing houses facilitated the growth of the novel as a form. In the year 1870, an Education Act was passed which made education an easy access to the masses furthermore increasing literacy rates among the population. Certain jobs required a certain level of reading ability and simple novels catered to this by becoming a device to practice reading. Also the time of the daily commute to work for men and the time alone at home for women could be filled by reading which now became a leisure activity. As a response to the latter, the demand for fiction, rose substantially. The novels of the age mostly had a moral strain in them with a belief in the innate goodness of human nature.
The characters were well rounded and the protagonist usually belonged to a middle class society who struggled to create a niche for himself in the industrial and mercantile world. The stress was on realism and an attempt to describe the daily struggles of ordinary men that the middle class reader could associate with. The moral tangents were perhaps an attempt to rescue the moral degradation prevalent in the society then and supplied the audience with hope and positivity. These moral angles allowed for inclusion of larger debates in fiction like the ones surrounding "the woman question marriage, progress, education, the Industrial revolution. New roles for women were created because of the resultant economic market and their voice which was earlier not given cadence was now being spotted and recognized and novels became the means where the domestic confinement of women was questioned. Novels reflecting the larger questions surrounding women, like those of their roles and duties. In the latter half of the century, married Women's Property Acts was passed, the women suffrage became an important point of debate, and poverty and other economic reasons challenged the traditional roles of women.
Essay writing Tips gcse-revision, english, essay
Strict societal codes were enforced and certain activities were openly looked down upon. These codes were even harsher for women. A feminine code of apple conduct was levied on them which described every aspect of their being from the proper apparels to how to converse, everything had rules. The role of women was mostly that of being angels of the house and restricted to domestic confines. Professionally very few options were available to them as a woman could either become a governess or a teacher in rich households. Hence they were financially dependent on their husbands and fathers and it led to a commercialization of the institution of marriage. Victorian novels, victorian Era is seen as the link between Romanticism of the 18th century and the realism of the 20th century. The novel business as a genre rose to entertain the rising middle class and to depict the contemporary life in a changing society. Although the novel had been in development since the 18th century with the works of Daniel Defoe, henry fielding, laurence Sterne, samuel Richardson and the others, it was in this period that the novel got mass acceptance and readership.
While the country saw economic progress, poverty and exploitation were also equally a part. The gap between the rich and the poor increased significantly and the drive for material and commercial success was seen to propagate a kind of a moral decay in the society itself. The changing landscape of the country was another concern. While the earlier phase of Romanticism saw a celebration of the country side and the rich landscape of the flora and fauna, the victorian era saw a changing of the landscape to one of burgeoning industries and factories. While the poor were exploited for their labor, the period witnessed the rise of the bourgeoisie or the middle class due to increasing trade between Britain and its colonies and the reform Bill of 1832 strengthen their hold. There was also a shift from the romantic ideals of the previous age towards a more realistic acceptance and depiction of society. One of the most important factors that defined the age was its stress on proposal morality.
a lot better prepared.'. Print, reference this, published: 23rd March, 2015, in the year 1837, queen Victoria ascended the throne of Great Britain and Ireland and succeeded William the. She served for a period of 64 years, till her death in 1901 and it is one of the longest reigns in the history of England. The period was marked by many important social and historical changes that altered the nation in many ways. The population nearly doubled, the British Empire expanded exponentially and technological and industrial progress helped Britain become the most powerful country in the world. Chief Characteristics of Victorian Period.
Couldn't have done it without you! I just wanna say thank you. This site is beyond 'wow' - i can't believe it!' 'thanks again for your fantastic support!' i wish you were my English teacher because you are amazing!' (blushes)! First off I want to tell you that this site is awesome! And you can actually understand it! Thank you so much for this site!' 'thanks, mate - you're a lifesaver' '. I really wouldn't have been able to achieve the grades i am achieving owl without your brilliant site.' '. Nearly cried when I found Englishbiz - it's so clear! So informative!' 'i wouldn't have been able to achieve the grades I did without all your advice!
Free english literature Essays and Papers
Here are some extracts from the many emails sent to Englishbiz: 'i'm so glad I found this website. I got an A grade, because i read everything on your website to do with description! From a c to.' 'thank you for making a difference' '. We've had outstanding results the last few years. We've a lot to thank you for.' '. You can distil topics in such a succinct and structured style that is both accessible and academically rigorous.'. It's really helped and now i've had the confdence to do two more essays (with the help of the Englishbiz website, of course). I honestly couldn't with have done it without your help.' '. I got an a in English Lit and an a in English as well!