In Egypt however there was one who was raised above the priests; he was the living incarnation of the chief god of the land, the Pharaoh, the god king. There were few changes in the world in those days; mens days were sunny, toilsome and conventional. Few strangers came into the land and such as did fared uncomfortably. The priest directed life according to immemorial rules and watched the stars for seed time and marked the omens of the sacrifices and interpreted the warnings of dreams. Men worked and loved and died, not unhappily, forgetful of the savage past of their race and heedless of its future. Sometimes the ruler was benign. Such was Pepi ii, who reigned in Egypt for ninety years.
History of writing - wikipedia
For the reader must remember that in the land of Mesopotamia for countless years, letters, records and accounts were all written on comparatively indestructible tiles. To that fact we owe a great wealth of recovered knowledge. Bronze, copper, gold, silver and, as a precious rarity, meteoric iron were known in both Sumer and Egypt at a very early stage. Daily life in those first city lands of the old world must have been very similar in both Egypt and Sumer. And except for the asses and cattle in the streets it must have been not unlike the life in the maya cities of America three or four thousand years later. Most of the people in peace time were busy with irrigation and cultivation—except on days of religious festivity. They had no money and no need for. They managed their small occasional trades by barter. The princes and rulers who alone had more than a few possessions used gold and silver bars and precious stones for any incidental act of trade. The temple dominated life; for in Sumeria it was a great towering temple that went up to a roof from which the stars were observed; in Egypt it was a massive building with only a ground floor. In Sumeria the priest ruler was the greatest, most splendid of beings.
It made the growth of states larger than the old city states possible. It made a continuous historical consciousness possible. The command of the priest or king and his seal could go far beyond his sight and voice and could survive his death. It is interesting to note that golf in ancient Sumeria seals were greatly used. A king or a nobleman or a merchant would have his seal often very artistically carved, and would impress it on any clay document he wished to authorize. So close had civilization got to printing six thousand years ago. Then the clay was dried hard and became permanent.
We draw a camp with tents and a bell, and the child is delighted to guess that this is the Scotch name campbell. The sumerian language was a language made up of accumulated syllables rather like some contemporary. Amerindian languages, and it lent itself very readily to this syllabic method of writing words expressing ideas that could not be conveyed by pictures directly. Egyptian writing underwent parallel developments. Later on, when foreign peoples with less distinctly syllabled methods of speech were to learn and use these picture scripts they were to make those further modifications and simplifications that developed at last into alphabetical writing. All the true alphabets of the later world derived from a mixture of the sumerian cuneiform and the Egyptian hieroglyphic (priest writing). Later in China there was to develop a conventionalized picture writing, but in China it never got to the alphabetical stage. The invention of writing was of very great importance in the development of human societies. It put agreements, laws, commandments on record.
Outline of ancient Egypt - wikipedia
Its god and reviews its priest-king claimed an authority from the. Persian Gulf to the, red sea. At first writing was merely an abbreviated method of pictorial record. Neolithic times men were beginning to write. Azilian rock pictures to which we have already referred show the beginning of the process. Many of them record hunts and expeditions, and in most of these the human figures are plainly drawn.
But in some the painter would not bother with head and limbs; he just indicated men by a resume vertical and one or two transverse strokes. From this to a conventional condensed picture writing was an easy transition. Sumer, where the writing was done on clay with a stick, the dabs of the characters soon became unrecognizably unlike the things they stood for, but in Egypt where men painted on walls and on strips of the papyrus reed (the first paper) the likeness. From the fact that the wooden styles used in Sumeria made wedge-shaped marks, the sumerian writing is called cuneiform (fig wedge-shaped). An important step towards writing was made when pictures were used to indicate not the thing represented but some similar thing. In the rebus dear to children of a suitable age, this is still done to-day.
Euphrates and, tigris flowed by separate mouths into the persian Gulf, and it was in the country between them that the sumerians built their first cities. About the same time, for chronology is still vague, the great history of Egypt was beginning. These sumerians appear to have been a brownish people with prominent nose. They employed a sort of writing that has been deciphered, and their language is now known. They had discovered the use of bronze and they built great tower-like temples of sun-dried brick.
The clay of this country is very fine; they used it to write upon, and so it is that their inscriptions have been preserved. They had cattle, sheep, goats and asses, but no horses. They fought on foot, in close formation, carrying spears and shields of skin. Their clothing was of wool and they shaved their heads. Each of the sumerian cities seems generally to have been an independent state with a god of its own and priests of its own. But sometimes one city would establish an ascendancy over others and exact tribute from their population. A very ancient inscription. Nippur records the empire, the first recorded empire, of the sumerian city.
Ancient, egyptian, writing - ancient History Encyclopedia
Go to the, a short History of the world, table of Contents. Sumer, early Egypt and Writing, chapter fifteen of, a short History of the world,. The old world is a wider, more varied stage than the new. By 6000 or 7000. There were already quasi-civilized communities almost at the peruvian level, appearing in write various fertile regions of Asia and in the nile valley. At that time north Persia and western Turkestan and south Arabia were all more fertile than they are now, and there are traces of very early communities in these regions. It is in lower Mesopotamia however and in Egypt that there first appear cities, temples, systematic irrigation, and evidences of a social organization rising above the level of a mere barbaric village-town. In those days the.with
During a certain period, solar veneration became a species of ancestor worship. The sloping entrance passage of the great pyramid pointed directly toward the pole Star so that the soul of the king, when emerging from the tomb, could go straight to the stationary and established constellations of the fixed stars, the supposed abode of the kings. 95:2.8 When the oblique rays of the sun were observed penetrating earthward through an aperture in the clouds, it was believed that they betokened the letting down of a celestial stairway whereon the king and other righteous souls might ascend. "King Pepi has put down his radiance as a stairway under his feet whereon to ascend to his mother." 95:2.9 When Melchizedek appeared in the flesh, the Egyptians had a religion far above that of the surrounding peoples. They believed that a disembodied soul, if properly armed with magic engineering formulas, could evade the intervening evil spirits and make its way to the judgment hall of Osiris, where, if innocent of "murder, robbery, falsehood, adultery, theft, and selfishness it would be admitted to the. If this soul were weighed in the balances and found wanting, it would be consigned to hell, to the devouress. And this was, relatively, an advanced concept of a future life in comparison with the beliefs of many surrounding peoples. 95:2.10 The concept of judgment in the hereafter for the sins of one's life in the flesh on earth was carried over into hebrew theology from Egypt. The word judgment appears only once in the entire book of Hebrew Psalms, and that particular psalm was written by an Egyptian.
magical practices, while burdensome to life from the cradle to the grave, most effectually delivered them from the religion of the tombs. The priests would inscribe the coffins with charm texts which were believed to be protection against a "man's having his heart taken away from him in the nether world." Presently a diverse assortment of these magical texts was collected and preserved as The book. But in the nile valley magical ritual early became involved with the realms of conscience and character to a degree not often attained by the rituals of those days. And subsequently these ethical and moral ideals, rather than elaborate tombs, were depended upon for salvation. 95:2.6 The superstitions of these times are well illustrated by the general belief in the efficacy of spittle as a healing agent, an idea which had its origin in Egypt and spread therefrom to Arabia and Mesopotamia. In the legendary battle of Horus with Set the young god lost his eye, but after Set was vanquished, this eye was restored by the wise god Thoth, who spat upon the wound and healed. 95:2.7 The Egyptians long believed that the stars twinkling in the night sky represented the survival of the souls of the worthy dead; other survivors they thought were absorbed into the sun.
The idea of monotheism wavered back and forth in Egypt for many centuries, the presentation belief in one god always gaining ground but never quite dominating the evolving concepts of polytheism. 95:2.3 For ages the Egyptian peoples had been given to the worship of nature gods; more particularly did each of the two-score separate tribes have a special group god, one worshiping the bull, another the lion, a third the ram, and. Still earlier they had been totem tribes, very much like the Amerinds. 95:2.4 In time the Egyptians observed that dead bodies placed in brickless graves were preserved - embalmed - by the action of the soda-impregnated sand, while those buried in brick vaults decayed. These observations led to those experiments which resulted in the later practice of embalming the dead. The Egyptians believed that preservation of the body facilitated one's passage through the future life. That the individual might properly be identified in the distant future after the decay of the body, they placed a burial statue in the tomb along with the corpse, carving a likeness on the coffin.
Egyptian, and mayan, writing, egyptian, term
95:2.1 The original Melchizedek teachings really took their deepest root in Egypt, from where they subsequently spread to europe. The evolutionary religion of the nile valley was periodically augmented by the arrival of superior strains of Nodite, adamite, and general later Andite peoples of the euphrates valley. From time to time, many of the Egyptian civil administrators were sumerians. As India in these days harbored the highest mixture of the world races, so Egypt fostered the most thoroughly blended type of religious philosophy to be found on Urantia, and from the nile valley it spread to many parts of the world. The jews received much of their idea of the creation of the world from the babylonians, but they derived the concept of divine Providence from the Egyptians. 95:2.2 It was political and moral, rather than philosophic or religious, tendencies that rendered Egypt more favorable to the salem teaching than Mesopotamia. Each tribal leader in Egypt, after fighting his way to the throne, sought to perpetuate his dynasty by proclaiming his tribal god the original deity and creator of all other gods. In this way the Egyptians gradually got used to the idea of a supergod, a steppingstone to the later doctrine of a universal creator deity.