One could conceive of a wide spectrum of dialects and registers, with the highly persianised Urdu at one end of the spectrum and a heavily sanskrit-based dialect, spoken in the region around Varanasi, at the other end of the spectrum. In common usage in India, the term Hindi includes all these dialects except those at the Urdu end of the spectrum. Thus, the different meanings of the word Hindi include, among others: standardised Hindi as taught in schools throughout India (except some states such as Tamil Nadu formal or official Hindi advocated by purushottam Das Tandon and as instituted by the post-independence Indian government, heavily influenced. Modern Standard Urdu edit The phrase zabān-e urdu-e mo'alla written in Nasta'liq calligraphy main article: Urdu Urdu is the national language of pakistan and an officially recognised regional language of India. Urdu is the official language of all pakistani provinces and is taught in all schools as a compulsory subject up to the 12th grade. It is also an official language in the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir, national Capital Territory of Delhi, uttar Pradesh, bihar, telangana that have significant Muslim populations. Bazaar Hindustani edit main article: Hindi dialects In a specific sense, hindustani may be used to refer to the dialects and varieties used in common speech, in contrast with the standardised Hindi and Urdu.
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Hindustani is perhaps the english lingua franca of the north and west of the Indian subcontinent, though it is understood fairly well in other regions also, especially in the urban areas. A common vernacular sharing characteristics with Sanskritised Hindi, regional Hindi and Urdu, hindustani is more commonly used as a vernacular than highly sanskritised Hindi or highly Arabicised/Persianised Urdu. This can be seen in the popular culture of Bollywood or, more generally, the vernacular of North Indians and pakistanis, which generally employs a lexicon common to both Hindi and Urdu speakers. Minor subtleties in region will also affect the 'brand' of Hindustani, sometimes pushing the hindustani closer to Urdu or to hindi. One might reasonably assume that the hindustani spoken in Lucknow, uttar Pradesh (known for its usage of Urdu) and Varanasi (a holy city for Hindus and thus using highly sanskritised Hindi) is somewhat different. Modern Standard Hindi edit rigveda manuscript in devanagari (early 19th century) main article: Hindi Standard Hindi, one of the official languages of India, is based on the Khariboli dialect of the delhi region and differs from Urdu in that it is usually written in the. It has a literature of 500 years, with prose, poetry, religion philosophy, under the bahmani kings and later on Khutab Shahi Adil Shahi etc. It is a living language, still prevalent all over the deccan Plateau. Note that the term Hindustani has generally fallen out of common usage in modern India, except to refer to "Indian" as a nationality 32 and a style of Indian classical music prevalent in northern India. The term used to refer to it is Hindi or Urdu, depending on the religion of the speaker, and regardless of the mix of Persian or Sanskrit words used by the speaker.
Next to English it was the official language of British Indian Empire, was commonly written in Arabic or Persian characters, and was spoken by approximately 100,000,000 people. 30 When the British colonised the Indian subcontinent from the late 18th through to the late 19th century, they used the words 'hindustani 'hindi' and 'Urdu' interchangeably. They developed it as the language of administration of British India, 31 further preparing it to be the official language of modern India and pakistan. However, with summary independence, use of the word 'hindustani' declined, being largely replaced by 'hindi' and 'Urdu or 'hindi-Urdu' when either of those was too specific. More recently, the word 'hindustani' has been used for the colloquial language of Bollywood films, which are popular in both India and pakistan and which cannot be unambiguously identified as either Hindi or Urdu. Registers edit see also: HindiUrdu controversy and Register (sociolinguistics) Although, at the spoken level, hindi and Urdu are considered registers of a single language, they differ vastly in literary and formal vocabulary ; where literary hindi draws heavily on Sanskrit and to a lesser extent. The grammar and base vocabulary (most pronouns, verbs, adpositions, etc.) of both Hindi and Urdu, however, are the same and derive from a prakritic base, and both have persian/Arabic influence. The standardised registers Hindi and Urdu are collectively known as Hindi-Urdu.
The more highly persianised version later established as a language of the court was called rekhta, or "mixed". As an emerging common dialect, hindustani absorbed large numbers of Persian, Arabic, and Turkic words, and as Mughal conquests grew it spread as a lingua franca across much of northern India. Written in the perso-Arabic Script or devanagari script, 29 it remained the primary lingua franca of northern India for the next four centuries (although it varied significantly in vocabulary depending on the local language) and achieved the status of a literary language, alongside persian,. Its development was centred on the poets of the mughal courts of cities in Uttar Pradesh such as Delhi, lucknow, and Agra. John Fletcher Hurst in his book published in 1891 mentioned that the hindustani or Camp language or Language of the camps of moughal courts at Delhi was not regarded by philologists as distinct language but only as a dialect of Hindi with admixture of Persian. He continued: "But it has all the magnitude and importance of separate language. It is linguistic result of Muslim rule of eleventh twelfth centuries and is spoken (except in rural Bengal ) by many hindus in North India and by musalman population in all parts of India".
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19 The term Hindustani is still used for the colloquial language and navneet the lingua franca of North India and pakistan, for example for the language of Bollywood films, as well as for several quite different varieties of Hindi spoken outside the Indian subcontinent, such. Hindustani is also spoken by a small number of people in mauritius and south Africa. Citation needed basically hindi and Urdu are single languages. Contents History edit main article: History of Hindustani early forms of present-day hindustani developed from the middle Indo-Aryan apabhramsha vernaculars of present-day north India in the 7th13th centuries. 20 Amir Khusro, who lived in the 13th century ce during the delhi sultanate period in North India, used these forms (which was the lingua franca of the period) in his writings and referred to it as Hindavi ( Persian : literally "of Hindus.
20 The delhi sultanate, which comprised several Turkic and Afghan dynasties that ruled from Delhi, 21 was succeeded by the mughal Empire in 1526. Although the mughals were of Timurid ( Gurkānī ) Turko-mongol descent, 22 they were persianised, and Persian had gradually become the state language of the mughal empire after Babur, a continuation since the introduction of Persian by central Asian Turkic rulers in the Indian Subcontinent. The basis in general for the introduction of Persian language into the subcontinent was set, from its earliest days, by various Persianised Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties. 28 In the 18th century, towards the end of the mughal period, with the fragmentation of the empire and the elite system, a variant of Khariboli, one of the successors of apabhramsha vernaculars at Delhi, and nearby cities, came to gradually replace persian as the. The term Hindustani ( Persian : "of Hindustan was the name given to that variant of Khariboli. For socio-political reasons, though essentially the variant of Khariboli with Persian vocabulary, the emerging prestige dialect became also known as Zabān-e urdū-e mualla "language of the court" or Zabān-e urdū, -, "language of the camp" in Persian, derived from Turkic Ordū "camp cognate with English.
Indo-Aryan language, this article is about the language historically known as Hindustani, hindi or Urdu. For Modern Standard Hindi, see. For Modern Standard Urdu, see. Hindustani (Hindi:, a, urdu :, b ɦɪndʊstani, lit. . 'of Hindustan' 8 colloquially known by some.
Our language) 9 10 and historically also known as, hindavi, dehlavi, hindi-Urdu, and, rekhta, is the lingua franca. North India and, pakistan. 11 12, it is an, indo-Aryan language, deriving its base primarily from the. Khariboli dialect of, delhi. The language incorporates a large amount of vocabulary from. Sanskrit, persian and, arabic. 13 14 It is a pluricentric language, with two official forms, modern Standard Hindi and Modern Standard Urdu, 15 which are its standardised registers, and which may be called Hindustani or Hindi-Urdu when taken together. 16 The colloquial registers are mostly indistinguishable, and even though the official standards are nearly identical in grammar, they differ in literary conventions and in academic and technical vocabulary, with Urdu adopting stronger Persian and Arabic influences, and Hindi relying more heavily on Sanskrit. 17 18 Before the partition of India, the terms Hindustani, urdu, and Hindi were synonymous; they all covered what would be mostly called Urdu and Hindi today.
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Search System Anatomy search Is Not an it thing Choosing What to search search Algorithms query builders Presenting Results Designing the search Interface Where to learn More Chapter 9 Thesauri, controlled Vocabularies, and Metadata metadata controlled Vocabularies Technical Lingo a thesaurus in Action Types. Strategies Under Attack From Research to Strategy developing the Strategy work Products and Deliverables The Strategy report The Project Plan Presentations Chapter 12 Design and Documentation guidelines for diagramming an Information Architecture communicating Visually Blueprints Wireframes Content Mapping salon and Inventory content Models Controlled Vocabularies Design. The State of the field Chapter 14 Ethics Ethical Considerations Shaping the future Chapter 15 building an Information Architecture team Destructive acts of Creation Fast and Slow layers Project Versus Program buy or Rent do we really need to hire Professionals? The Dream team Chapter 16 tools and Software a time of Change categories in Chaos questions to Ask Information Architecture in the Organization Chapter 17 making the case for Information Architecture you must Sell The Two kinds of people in the world Running the numbers. Designing an Enterprise Information Architecture eia strategy and Operations doing the work and paying the bills Timing Is everything: a phased Rollout a framework for moving Forward Case Studies Chapter 20 msweb: An Enterprise Intranet Challenges for the User Challenges for the Information Architect. Org: An Online community evolt. Org in a nutshell Architecting an Online community The participation Economy how Information Architecture fits In The Un-Information Architecture Appendix 1 Essential Resources Communities Directories books and journals Formal Education Conferences and events Examples, deliverables, and tools Colophon.
What lies Ahead, chapter 3 User needs and Behaviors. The too-simple Information Model, information needs, information-seeking Behaviors. Learning About Information needs and Information-seeking Behaviors. Basic Principles of Information Architecture, chapter 4 The Anatomy of an Information Architecture. Visualizing Information Architecture, information Architecture components, chapter 5 Organization Systems. Challenges of Organizing Information, organizing Web Sites writing and Intranets, organization Schemes. Organization Structures, social Classification, creating Cohesive organization Systems, chapter 6 Labeling Systems. Why you should Care About Labeling Varieties of Labels Designing Labels Chapter 7 navigation Systems Types of navigation Systems Gray matters Browser navigation features building Context Improving Flexibility Embedded navigation Systems Supplemental navigation Systems Advanced navigation Approaches Chapter 8 search Systems does your Site need.
with a framework that allows you to learn new approaches - and unlearn outmoded ones. Table of Contents, introducing Information Architecture, chapter 1 Defining Information Architecture. A definition, tablets, Scrolls, books, and Libraries, explaining ia to Others. What Isnt Information Architecture? Why Information Architecture matters, bringing Our Work to life, chapter 2 Practicing Information Architecture. Do we need Information Architects? Whos qualified to Practice Information Architecture? Information Architecture Specialists, practicing Information Architecture in the real World.
The fundamental components of an architecture, illustrating the type interconnected nature of these systems. Updated, with updates for tagging, folksonomies, social classification, and guided navigation. Tools, techniques, and methods that take you from research to strategy and design to implementation. This edition discusses blueprints, wireframes and the role of diagrams in the design phase. A series of short essays that provide practical tips and philosophical advice for those who work on information architecture. The business context of practicing and promoting information architecture, including recent lessons on how to handle enterprise architecture. Case studies on the evolution of two large and very different information architectures, illustrating best practices along the way.
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Designing Large-Scale web Sites, publisher: o'reilly media, release date: July 2008. Pages: 528, the post-Ajaxian Web.0 world of wikis, folksonomies, and mashups makes well-planned information architecture even more essential. How do you business present large volumes of information to people who need to find what they're looking for quickly? This classic primer shows information architects, designers, and web site developers how to build large-scale and maintainable web sites that are appealing and easy to navigate. The new edition is thoroughly updated to address emerging technologies - with recent examples, new scenarios, and information on best practices - while maintaining its focus on fundamentals. With topics that range from aesthetics to mechanics, Information Architecture for the world Wide web explains how to create interfaces that users can understand right away. Inside, you'll find: An overview of information architecture for both newcomers and experienced practitioners.