From China to detroit, animals are not being treated the way animals should be treated. In fact, some animals are not even getting a chance at life. In 2007, the ida (In Defense of Animals) came out with a top ten list of the worst places for an elephant. All ten of the American zoos have had elephants die prematurely there. This is because of mistreatment of animals (improper diet, lack of exercise, unsuitable living conditions, etc.). Another example of mistreatment in zoos is illegal substances being made from animals.
155 Words, essay
Master Thesis, california state polytechnic University. Evaluation of for wildlif crossing structures: Thier use and effectivness. Movement patterns of coyotes and bobcats relative to road underpasses in Chino hills of southern California. Florida panther deaths increase from collisions with vehicles. Florida fish and Wildlife conservation Commission. Several years ago, the woburn Safari park in Bedfordshire, england admitted to killing excess monkeys. The park said that it cost too much to continue to feed the monkeys, so the animals were shot and left to die. This is just one of the many cases in which animals are mistreated, murdered, and malnourished by humans. Animals should be able to live life in natural environments without any negative influences by humans. The first reason zoos should be banned is because of the fact that malnutrition, mistreatment, and murder saga (the three m's) is becoming more and more popular in zoos worldwide.
Sources and more information, chilson,. Cutting Edge: Right of summary way. Audubon magazine (June, 2003). Estimate of the area effected ecologiclly by the road system in the United States. Roads and thier major ecological effects. Annual review of Ecology and Systematics. Distribution, relative abundance, and roadway underpass responses of carnivores throughout the puente-Chino hills.
Haas (2000) and Lyren (2001) have also suggested that other species such as: bobcats, coyotes, gray fox, mule deer, and long-tailed weasels are benefitting in addition to professional the tortoise. Besides these large cuddly species mentioned above, there have also been numerous successes with smaller species like fish and amphibians through various mitigation methods that can easily be identified in a literature review. Conclusions, ultimately, there is no single or simple approach to road crossings and mitigation of wildlife mortality or loss of biodiversity caused by roadways. Diverse solutions should be explored as diverse problems abound. A crossing structure that is well planned has a better chance of working effectively and thorough research should be done before the structure is built (especially true in high cost situations). Structures that include as many effective design elements as possible will work better. And, structures that work well could be used for generations and may be learned travel corridors for some species that are long lived. Next time you see a flattened animal on a roadway you're driving on, you might think to yourself "what kind of structure could allow this type of animal to safely disperse or go hunting for food or mates if it were placed here. And, if you do, you as well will be part of the emerging science of "Road Ecology" and potentially part of the solution to the loss of biodiversity that has resulted from our creation of the largest human artifact ever on earth pdf that are the.
In Banff National Park in Canada, the number of elk killed by vehicles on an annual basis has been reduced by 97 (Hartmann 2003). The endangered panther in Florida is a species considered to be on the brink of extinction, and only around 100 individuals are thought to survive. The same highway that runs to the northern tip of mitten of Michigan (I-75) runs south through Florida and effects these panthers. By constructing a series of underpasses that link important habitats and by constructing fences along I-75 near the crossings to funnel the animals into the crossing, no panthers have thought to have been killed by road related mortality since 2007. This mitigation has proven to be one of the best avenues explored for protecting this rare species (Scott 2007). These underpasses also appear to benefit bobcats, deer and raccoons and have lessened vehicle collision rates. Crossings have also been important for protecting biodiversity in southern California where used by the threatened desert tortoise. Tortoise mortality on the highway was reduced by 93 during the first four years after simple culvert underpasses were constructed (Chilson, 2003).
Essay on endangered species
Variously constructed road crossings can help mitigate the ecological effects of roads and can also improve our own safety - less collisions with large animals means less fatalities and lowered costs of insurance for drivers as a whole. When considering where to dawn potentially build a crossing structure there are many factors that come into play. Landscape ecology, crossing design and the functional group(s) of the species effected are three of biggest considerations and need to be understood well to have a crossing that works effectively. Once an area has been identified using landscape ecology that can provide habitat connectivity (often where high road kill is observed) for a particular species or group of species the next consideration is how to build the structure itself. Species of interest can also be based on which species might be endangered or threatened. The crossing should not direct animals to a mortality sink, or unsuitable habitats where animals will likely attorney die once there for various reasons.
Naturally mimicking overhead or underhead structures for megafauna may be needed to span highways in places like the rocky mountains, while small underground culverts might be used to connect wetlands or lotic habitats where amphibians or fish could benefit. Placement and design are limitless to a degree, but are key to success and require a great a deal of beforehand research so that limited funds can be used appropriately. Other considerations include understanding: surrounding habitats, level of human activity nearby, unnatural lighting, the animals field of view, vegetation and cover within the crossing, temperatures within the crossing, traffic noise near the crossing, substrates in the crossing, structural considerations to provide privacy and longevity, other. This list could include many other factors and all factors should be considered because preferably once built a structure wouldn't have to be moved or modified greatly (especially important if the structure is very large and cost millions to build). In some cases in the United States and North America, roadkill has been dramatically reduced by implementation of large and small crossing structures and biodiversity has been conserved.
The density of roads in the. S is on average.2 km/km2. An estimated (and probably underestimated) 1 million animals are killed on these roads daily making road-kill the greatest directly caused anthropogenic source of wildlife mortality in the country (Forman 1998). An estimated 15-20 of the United States is ecologically impacted by roadways (Forman 1998). Localized biodiversity can be severely affected by roadways that fractionize already marginal habitat. Biodiversity is affected by roadways in many ways that are really too numerous to list and describe in detail.
Some of these include: habitat fragmentation, restriction of gene flows between seperated individuals of species, reproductive isolation, road or vehicle related mortality, migration barriers, noise, chemical and light pollution, behavior alteration, invasive species corridors, promotion of additional urbanization and development and and many others. A potential solution is that of administering "road crossings" of various sorts for impacted wildlife. This idea is part of a larger topic in ecology just beginning to emerge deemed "Road Ecology" (Forman 2003 and in this context we must consider animal crossings as an integral part of the design and implementation of new roadways as well as a mitigation. Luckily, in the United States there is a high potential for animal crossings because most roadways are in the public domain. Crossings would involve many ideas and opinions from many fields of research including the social, political, economical and ecological realms — thus, road crossings could provide an avenue for multidisciplinary action. While ecology was emerging as a prevalent field in the 60's and 70's, roadways were being constructed at a frantic pace and were planned for efficieny and transport without ecological consideration for the most part. Today, as we see all around us, roads are prevalent and can be monolithic in makeup at a given area, sometimes spanning nearly 20 or more lanes. In some places, these emulate the berlin wall for species.
Endangered, animals - 6083 Words
In fact, the study finds that 66 percent of the 31 biggest carnivores are currently listed as threatened on the iucn red List." " 'There is now overwhelming evidence from around the world that we are better off with top predators in the environment because. Research has shown that sea otters (Enhydra lutris) exert a huge influence on their environment by keeping urchin populations in control. When sea otters are killed off, sea urchin populations explode, decimating kelp forests. The researchers write that sea otters 'enhance the abundance and distribution of kelp and other fleshy macroalgae in coastal inshore ecosystems.' "01-14. Title: An Informal Essay on roadways, biodiversity and Conservation through wildlife crossings. By justin Londer, introduction, background, design Information, roadways in North America total over five million miles and are the largest ever human constructed artifact on earth (Forman 2003). There are.2 million km of roads that 200 million vehicles use everyday owl (Forman 1998,2003).
While some animals have migrated offs to other parts, many animals who fail to adapt to the changing environment might become endangered and gradually extinct from the earth. Most of the countries have now imposed regulations on uncontrolled hunting of animals to save these rare animals from becoming extinct. However, prior to introduction of these laws many animals were exploited, especially for human food and fur. Audubon's sheep is one such example that was hunted to extinction by men. "The story of the worlds large carnivores is a largely bleak one. In the not so distant past, most peopleeven scientistslargely viewed large carnivores as competitors, pests, and deadly threats. Such views led to conflict and even extermination campaigns that killed-off many of the worlds top predators in Europe, north America, the middle east, and North Africa, and decimated populations elsewhere.
animals can still become extinct even if the habitat is not destroyed completely. For example, removal of dead trees from a forest keeps the forest relatively intact. However, it can be a serious threat to certain woodpeckers that make nest only on the dead trees. Disturbance, animals can even become endangered if their natural habitat is disturbed by the presence of man and his machine. Disturbance can force an animal to leave its natural habitat and move to other places. Adaptation to the Changing Environment, the environment is changing continuously as a consequence of several human activities. Many of the inventions made by man have led to different types of pollutions that have made surviving a real challenge for many animals. . The rising temperature of the earth and the melting snow caps have become a serious issue for animals dwelling in the poles.
How do animals Become Endangered, hunting And poaching, one of the major factors that has significantly contributed to make an animal endangered is commercial hunting. Hunters and poachers kill animals in lure of their valuable body parts to such an extent that the species population can no longer support the extensive hunting, and becomes endangered. Loss of habitat is another obvious reason for animals to become endangered. Just like human beings, animals also require food, water, and shelter to survive. However, human beings are highly adaptable and can create their own shelter and can store their food which is not best possible for other animals. Most animals can survive only in a particular environment, and if their natural environment is disturbed, the animals face serious threat. Moreover, some animals may need more than one habitat type and a variety of habitats near each other to survive. These animals are also on high risk of becoming endangered.
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Endangered animals are those animals that are on the verge of extinction. A plant or an animal species is considered to be endangered when its population decreases significantly so that the species no longer can recover and faces extinction in the wild. The International Union for salon Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (iucn) has categorized such endangered species in the International Union for Conservation of Nature red List. A species is declared extinct when there is no evidence found of its living after conducting surveys over the lifespan of the species in its natural habitat or native. There are several factors that are responsible for a species to become endangered. From human activities like destruction of natural habitat and poaching to the lack of adaptability of the species, there can be several reasons for an animal to become endangered. If you are interested to know such facts that can make an animal endangered, then read through this article carefully.