The internet allows students to access virtually all in information that is publicly available from the comfort of their homes. They do not need to travel or even to go to a library. Books are scanned in to the internet, museums have work available online, and college library sites offer online access to academic journals. The role of professors has slowly changed; they are no longer the dispensers of information but instead facilitate learning by providing guidelines and recommended resources. Although its easier to access more information, he mentioned that, its also easier to become distracted from work when using technology an affliction known as dad(divided attention discover). With the temptation to check balances, speak to someone on a smart phone or download a song available at the click of a button, many students have trouble finishing essays or doing some important reading. Laurilla (2009) obtained varied facts, she implied that the use of mobile phones are common to younger sector of the society.
Psychosocial features of depression: A systematic literature review
Pictures of area misbehavior can adversely affect their chances of getting into the university of their choices or of getting a job. As he mentioned also the creativity of pupils in school in the post, children and young people filled up their free time by reading books, socializing, or engaging in active, creative play. A fixation an gadgets reduce participation in of all these, especially the aspect of creation. Digital worlds can be vast, management but they are always structured not requiring the imagination and invention and inventiveness of unstructured play. Some children become less creative and less able to entertain themselves. As cited also in his study due to devotion of children and young people to gaming, texting, talking on the phone or socializing online. Some pupils may attempt to do this in class, with disrupts their learning, and at home it detracts from study time. Kids putting in long hours on their gadgets will give less attention to assignments and may be irritable when they are away from their gadgets. They might also sleep less, which can slow down their thinking the next day. John Ireland (2014) mentioned that with advances in technology, student study habits have dramatically changed. Technology has affected the way teachers presents information; slaving over books in the library and scribbling down notes on paper.
Studies in Canada, australia, the United States and Northern Ireland have tried to estimate the monetary value of potential savings to the national economy if physical activity is reduced and the patf has conducted a similar study focusing on Scottish data for coronary heart disease. With a proposed goal of reducing the level of inactive scots by 1 each year for the next 5 years, the economic benefits associated with the number of life years saved due to preventing these deaths was estimated to.2 million (patf, 2002). Ian MacArthur, chief executive of the United Kingdom Public health Association, has commented that 'by dealing with the issues that prevent people from becoming ill, 30 billion a year could be shaved off the nhs budget by 2030' (Spear, 2002:1). There would also be reduced medical costs from treating other conditions such as depression, fractures due to falling, hypertension and diabetes. Coen (2013) she stressed that, modern technologies like television and computers provide identifiable educational advantages, such as greater access to information and more compelling presentation of that information. Over-use of technology, though, especially such gadgets as cellphones, i pods and video games, presents a whole range of problems which may interfere with a student ability to learn and attend to lessons rding to him in terms of social networking. Students who use their gadgets to participates in social networking sites may post material considered inappropriate statement by school authorities. They may also develop an unfavorable reputation based on those picture or comments.
Nearby greenspace has been shown to enrich real estate prices and attract economic activity, as well as having manifold socio-cultural functions (Tyrväinen, 1999; Patel, 1992; Kaplan, 1992a). For example, features such as well-groomed summary grounds, public access to 'corporate' gardens in plazas, parks, and roof tops, can greatly enhance corporate image (Parker, 1992 whilst the presence of plantscapes in and around the office environment has a significant impact upon worker satisfaction which. Access to greenspace may also have important consequences for health and well-being of urban populations. For example, in a recent report Securing our Future health, david Wanless looked at the long term trends affecting the health service and the implications for funding the nhs. He specifically drew attention to the importance of public health intervention and dealing with the primary determinants of health (MacArthur, 2002). The Institute of leisure and Amenity management (ilam) has urged the Treasury and the department of health to accept the 'whole systems' approach to health care advocated by wanless's report and to recognise the role of leisure in delivering the benefits of healthy lifestyles. They welcomed the recognition within the report that increased physical activity could have a major impact on the long-term costs of health provision.
This promotion should involve supporting the acquisition and use of skills necessary to maintain a physically active life, encouraging the development of safe environments for active living, and action to stimulate policies which promote physical activity as part of everyday life ( ibid. Earlier research by hebs (1997 cited in Physical Activity task force, 2002) suggested that 8 key barriers prevent or inhibit recreational and health based activity in public open spaces. These include being over-weight, not enjoying exercise, being too old, a lack of time due to other commitments, ill-health, injury or disability, a lack of suitable facilities, skills, confidence, money, and transport, fears over safety, and concerns about the environment or unpredictable weather conditions. Index 3 The economic benefits of natural open space and greenspace The national Urban Forestry Unit (undated) states that trees and greenspaces can aid economic regeneration in a number of ways. Not only do natural environmental features create more amenable and pleasant living spaces, they can also make areas more attractive to new employers who in turn create new employment opportunities. In Europe more than two-thirds of the population resides in urban areas and the quality of the urban environment, including green areas, is central to the ecological, economic and social reconstruction and development of European cities (Nilsson, 2002; patf, 2002). The opportunities for open-air recreation and exercise afforded by greenspaces are important to local economies in terms of the provision of necessary recreational equipment, travel, accommodation, and gifts (Scottish Natural Heritage, 2002).
Adolescent depression: a review of the literature
Cooper et al (2000) report that ill-health was substantially higher among older minority ethnic adults than older white adults, particularly for Bangladeshis. The potential for improving chd risk by the improving the exercise habits of the population is considerable (Hardman and Hudson, 1989). Exercise has been identified as a key target area for action, primarily because of its role in the prevention of chd, stroke and vascular disease. However, it also plays a part in modifying some of the risk factors for diseases such as obesity, hypertension and raised blood cholesterol (hebs, 2001b; Department of health, 2000; Physical Activity task force, 2002; cooper et al, 1999). According to hebs regular exercise; "appears to provide some protection against other chronic diseases, such as osteoporosis (weight-bearing exercise non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and depression. It makes important contributions to weight control and, among older people, to the maintenance of functional capabilities and the prevention of falls. In terms of mental health, exercise relieves anxiety and depression, contributes to improved self-confidence, self-concept and self-esteem and, more generally, enhances well-being" (hebs, 2001b: 1).
In 1989 Hardman and Hudson stated that there was continuing uncertainty regarding the amount and kind of exercise needed to confer health benefits. Contemporary research generally agrees that physical activity does not need to be strenuous to have a significant effect on people's health, general well-being and productivity (patf, 2002). Changes in metabolic fitness can be detected following a relatively short intervention period (Buchanan et al, 2000). Improvements to people's health can be achieved by regular physical activity; the recommended target is 30 minutes of moderate exercise every day (Scottish Natural Heritage, 2002; nufu, 2002a; patf, 2002; Department of health, 2000). Children and younger people are recommended to undertake some form physical activity for 1 hour a day at least 5 times a week and it is stressed that this time must be 'quality time' (patf, 2002; Department of health, 2000). It is generally agreed that, for the majority, for exercise to have long-term benefits, it must be sufficiently intensive and easy. Hebs stress that physical activity must be promoted as a necessary part of everyday life (hebs, 2001b).
Defra (2002: 10) state that around 80 of the respondents to the survey of Public Attitudes to quality of Life and to the Environment (2001) said that they had visited the countryside for pleasure in the previous 12 months. Yet, the countryside Agency states that 7 out of 10 people do not take enough exercise (outdoors or otherwise) to benefit their health (The countryside Agency, 2001; nufu, 2002a; Department of health, 2000). Many individuals believe that exercise can benefit their health but few put this into practice (Hardman and Hudson, 1989). It is estimated that two-thirds of the Scottish adult population is now at risk from physical inactivity, making it the most common risk factor for coronary heart disease (chd one of the three biggest killers - alongside stroke and cancer - in Scotland today (Physical. This is a trend that starts at school.
Although physical activity data illustrates positive changes in the proportion of young people that are active, a health Education board for Scotland (hebs, 2001a) survey showed that only 4 in 10 young people were physically active - in and/or out of school - for. The hebs survey also highlighted that participation in physical activity was differential according to gender; a significantly higher proportion of boys than girls reported exercising in their free time 4 or more times a week and for 4 or more hours a week ( ibid. ; see also jean Alcock research and Consultancy services, 2001; Wold and Hendry, 1987; Biddle et al, 1998; Boreham et al, 1997; Craig et al, 1996; Bar-Or, 1994). In their report Lets make scotland Active, the Physical Activity task force (patf) (2002) discovered that class had a significant a bearing on the extent to which an individual participated in physically active recreation. The report states that the proportion of sedentary adults in the lowest socio-economic groups is double that among those from the highest socio-economic groups (patf, 2002). However, the patf recognise that it is too simplistic to consider this issue merely in terms of class; people from the lowest socio-economic groups are also among the most active - largely accounted for by more manual work and lack of access to private motorised. Research suggests that increased health-related physical activity may also be of significance to minority ethnic groups.
Adolescent depression: A review of the literature - scienceDirect
This includes certain medicinal uses such as the formulation of herbal remedies and reviews drugs (e.g. Quinine) from plant extracts, and the practice of bathing in and drinking spa water, through to planting schemes which take into account the mythical and folkloric powers bestowed on trees and other flora (Cox, 2002; Gesler, 1992). Natural open spaces and well-designed greenspaces provide a locus for recreation, social list interaction and community action, are a source of employment and natural resources, and are highlighted as having a particularly positive influence on health and well-being (MacArthur, 2002; Gruber, 1986; Steptoe and Butler, 1996;. This review has covered as diverse a literature as possible, ranging from promotional leaflets to academic papers, and deriving from international, English-language and European sources. In the review the terms 'countryside' and 'greenspace' are deemed to include urban fringe woodlands, inland waterways and urban parks. Techniques used to uncover literature for the review included a wide-ranging, key-word search of library catalogues, including universities, the national Library of Scotland and the British Library, and databases including the niss (National Information Services System) Information Gateway, copac (co-operative academic Information Retrieval Network for. An international internet search was also undertaken using the same search terms. Index 2 Open-air recreation Open-air recreation and access to outdoor spaces is an important part of many people's daily lives, and research has shown that outdoor activity provides scope for relaxation, refreshment, escape from the everyday and a chance to form social relationships (Macnaghten and.
The main contemporary sources of most air pollutants still arise from fossil-fuel combustion (defra, 2002). Defra (2002) and Hunt et al (2000) both state that the adverse health effects of exposure to high concentrations of chemicals such as benzene,.3-butadiene, carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, ozone, particles and sulphur dioxide, range from mental impairment to cancer and, with excessive exposure. Whilst air quality has improved in urban and rural areas during the last 20 years, between 12,3000 and 24,100 deaths are thought to be hastened annually due to air pollution by ozone, particulates and sulphur dioxide ( ibid. 3; defra, 2003: 76). Poorer people living in disadvantaged areas are exposed to the highest levels resume of air pollution (defra, 2003). Beneficial environmental exposure despite the above, there "is a long tradition that healing powers may be found in the physical environment, whether that entails materials such as medicinal plants, the fresh air and pure water of the countryside, or magnificent scenery" (Gesler, 1992: 736). Growing contemporary evidence also supports the view that exposure (both passive and active and access, to greenspaces can have a wide range of social, economic, environmental and health benefits (Cox, 2002; Lundberg, 1998b; Burns, 1998; Ulrich and Parsons, 1992; Freeman, 1984).
specific natural settings during our evolutionary history may have been so central to survival that natural selection favoured those individuals who acquired and retained certain positive or approach responses toward them. Hazardous environmental exposure Environmental health literature has traditionally focused on the hazardous nature of environmental exposures (Frumkin, 2001). There is a wealth of research that details the vast number of ways in which exposure to the natural environment can have a negative effect on human health (Cox, 2002; boulware, 2003; Lundberg, 1998a). For example, (i) allergies such as asthma and hay fever, (ii) poisoning from sap, berries, fruits, and pathogenic fungi such as Cryptococcus neoformans and Blastomyces Dermatitidis, and (iii) occupational health issues such as Lyme disease in forest and archaeological workers, vibration white finger in chainsaw. When hazards to health in the physical environment interact with individual risk factors they can contribute to cancer, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders allergies, neurological and motor disorders and accidental injuries. These risks are likely to be even more serious for older people than for the rest of the population (Ginn et al, 1997). The public Attitudes to quality of Life and to the Environment Survey (2001) showed that public concern was greater in terms of pollution issues such as the disposal of hazardous waste, traffic exhaust fumes and urban smog, than local environmental issues (defra, 2002). Air pollution has long been accepted as a cause of ill health although contemporary air pollution episodes are rarely as dramatic as the london smogs in the 1950s/60s (Hunt et al, 2000; detr,.2000; see also lundberg, 1998b).
6, making connections between people and the natural environment. 7, future research 8, bibliography 1 Introduction, hunt et al (2000) state that the impact of the environment on health is complex and difficult to disentangle; health within an environmental context must be considered as revelation a multifaceted and holistic phenomenon. They recognise that the identification of a link between environment and public health is not new and that environmental legislation targeted at protecting health through improved housing and sanitation go back centuries ( ibid. ; see also morris, 2003; Gesler, 1998). However, hunt et al (2000) note that by the mid-twentieth century the concerns of the 'sanitarian' public health movement began to diminish as environmental conditions improved and medical interventions became more effective ( ibid. Ulrich and Parsons (1992) believe that the villa gardens of the ancient Egyptian nobility and the persian walled gardens of Mesopotamia indicate the great lengths to which the earliest urban peoples attempted to maintain direct contact with nature. In the 1860s/1870s us landscape architect, Frederick law Olmsted was convinced that visual contact with nature was beneficial to the emotional and physiological health of city dwellers ( ibid. Olmsted's theories regarding the healthful, restorative effects of nature in the urban environment were a major influence on the city beautiful movement and had a widespread effect on the design of parks and urban landscaping ( ibid. Gullone (2000) states that certain landscape features that we find aesthetically pleasing today may have an affinity with those that enhanced the survival of the species - for example, bodies of water, plants and animals, higher areas, trees with low trunks, trees with high canopies.
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Health, well-being and thesis Open Space, literature review, nina morris. Openspace: the research centre for inclusive access to outdoor environments. Edinburgh College of Art and Heriot-Watt University 79 Grassmarket, edinburgh EH1 2hj, tel:, fax. July 2003, health, well-being and Open Space, index. Introduction 2, open-air recreation 3, the economic benefits of natural open space and greenspace 4, the environmental benefits of natural open space and greenspace 5, the health benefits of natural open space and greenspace.1, enhanced personal and social communication skills. 5.2, increased physical health. Enhanced mental and spiritual health. 5.4, enhanced spiritual, sensory, and aesthetic awareness. 5.5, ability to assert personal control and increased sensitivity to one's own well-being.