But such was the demand to read the 134-page document, written by the physicist as a 24-year-old postgraduate, that the website intermittently crashed. Cambridge University said more than 60,000 people have gone onto their website to read or download the work so far. Other theses are "fairly well used comparatively the University said, "but most would have fewer than 100 views a month". Regarded as one of the most brilliant physicists since einstein, Prof Hawking humbly said he hoped people would not be "disappointed" after finally having access to his thesis. Professor Stephen Hawking added that he hoped to "inspire people" by making his university work available and encouraged other academics to do the same. "Anyone, anywhere in the world should have free, unhindered access to not just my research, but to the research of every great and enquiring mind across the spectrum of human understanding he said. 4/2/2004, grad Student Pick up lines 4/5/2004, our work is like this donut 4/7/2004, our work is like this donut 4/9/2004, i, grad Student 4/12/2004, i, grad Student 4/14/2004, i, grad Student 4/16/2004.
University of Helsinki - faculty of Veterinary
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Agronomy and soils - ms, mag, PhD
Figure.15 shows a photo micrograph of a tlm mesa pattern etched on a test ito sample revelation using the dry etching technique discussed thus far. In comparison with the results obtained for a similar test sample etched using HCl solution, these results show near perfect edges replicated from the mask. There is no apparent lateral etching or residue of debris on the substrate. Figure.15: Photo micrograph of an ito mesa pattern, etched using rie. The figure shows near perfect edges while the substrate appears remarkably clean As discussed in Chapter 6, using this dry etching technique with Al as the mask, a 2 m m fet gate structure was successfully produced in the fabrication of the first transparent gate. Therefore, this technique was used in all subsequent fabrication ito structures below 50 m m and proved to be a reliable and very convenient method for patterning plan delicate ito structures. Bashar (in accordance with paragraph.2d, University of London Regulations for the degrees.
Figure.14 shows that while the ito etch rate resume at 100W. Figure.14: Selective rie of ito over Al in argon plasma at. Following dry etching, the Al is selectively removed by placing the sample in a super saturated luke warm solution ( » 30C) of koh for app. Thicker layers of Al were difficult to remove chemically; although further heating the koh solution accelerated Al removal, this also caused partial etching of the ito. In comparison to the ito dry etching techniques of Adesida et al 148 using ch 4 /H 2 mixtures, these etch rates are an order lower. This difference most likely arises from a variation in the etch mechanisms involved in the two cases: whereas the carbon in the methane/hydrogen mixture is said to react with the oxygen in ito, there are no similar reactive species in the Ar plasma. Therefore, it is postulated that the etching of ito in Ar plasma is essentially an ion milling process.
Argon plasma is that of a physical knocking of the ito species rather than by a chemical reaction 150. Based on these findings, the. Power of 100W was decided to be the most controllable and suitable for further dry etching work. As even the thick photoresist was damaged during the rie process and was therefore difficult to remove, an alternative material for the mask was necessary. A metal which has a sufficiently lower etch rate than ito in the Ar plasma but nevertheless can be subsequently removed chemically in preference to ito would be the ideal substitute. Aluminium was the preferred candidate on both counts. A resistively evaporated layer of Al was therefore used as a mask. Ito is selectively dry etched over Al in argon plasma.
Figure.12 and, figure.13 show the results of this investigation. Figure.12: ito etched Thickness in argon ambient versus time under various. Sputtering, the sample was then summary patterned using standard photolithography process to enable thickness measurements to be carried out following dry etching. Thick photoresist ( 3 m m) was used as the mask for these experiments which were performed at three suitable. Powers of 100W, 150w, and 200W. The dry etching chamber was pumped to pressures better than 1e-4 torr; Ar was then flowed in at a constant rate to maintain a chamber pressure of 11 mtorr prior to exciting the plasma. The last point on the 150W power line. Figure.13: ito etch Rate in Argon ambient.
Automated modelling for integrated water resources
5.2.4 Selective rie of thesis ito in Argon Plasma. The commonly used solution of HCl for ito definition by wet chemical etching results in removals of approximately.5 m m of ito underneath the photoresist mask. Thus where near micron structures need to be reproduced, wet chemical etching techniques are often unsuitable. Although ch 4 /H 2 mixtures can be used for reactive ion etching of ito 148, this is a potentially explosive gas mixture which is unsuitable for use in environments without relatively expensive exhaust set-ups operating round the clock to remove any build-ups. Dry etching of ito using a gas mixture of acetone, argon and oxygen - essentially a hydrocarbon etch with acetone being the source of reactive organic radicals in the plasma discharge - has also been reported 149. However, this technique needs cumbersome optimisation of the various constituent gas partial pressures to ensure that no carbon debris is left on the surface. Therefore we investigated the suitability of a number of gases for dry etching ito: freon, oxygen and argon. Dry etching using Ar was found to be the most suitable in terms of speed and selectivity.