It should also include some mention of the essays position within the field as a whole. Do you know that the key element of your research proposal will be its methodology section? Imagine this: you are competing with several other organizations for grant money to conduct an investigation into a new treatment for cancer. . you will need to convince the grant foundation that their money will be well spent, and that you will manage this investigation well. How can they believe that you will produce results if you do not tell them about the methods you intend to use in order to assess and study your research and data? . Will you conduct experiments, or will you study existing groups of individuals? .
However, this kind of opening requires a lot of skill, and you can lose your readers in the second and third paragraphs if do not make your purpose clear. Patterns: The standard pattern for an any introductory paragraph follows the order of the tasks outlined above. Below is an outline of that pattern, written as if it were the first section of a formal outline of the entire essay: I: Introduction, the topic, its boundaries, why it is interesting. Structure and/or Methodology, the essays main sections (structure why they come in that order (structural principle). How the author plans to draw the necessary conclusions from the information available (methodology). The Thesis Statement (usually a single sentence). Its premise (the general claim about the information available). Its conclusion (the consequences of the first claim). Not every essay contains every element in precisely this order, but most good essays cover all of them, either explicitly or implicitly. In longer and more scholarly essays, oxford the structure/methodology section should be longer, or can even be its own paragraph.
Last updated 13th June 2018. The Introductory paragraph, the salon Introductory paragraph, the paragraph that begins an essay causes students the most trouble, yet carries the most importance. Although its precise construction varies from genre to genre (and from essay to essay good introductory paragraphs generally accomplish the same tasks and follow a few basic patterns. I have listed some of them below, but keep in mind that what follows are guidelines, not immutable templates. Tasks: The introductory paragraph to a short essay usually attempts to do three things: Introduce the topic with some indication of its inherent interest or importance, and a clear definition of the boundaries of the subject area. Indicate the structure and/or methodology of the essay, often with the major sections of the essay or its structural principle clearly stated. State the thesis of the essay, preferably in a single, arguable statement with a clear main clause. Not every essay does all three in the first paragraph, and the degree to which an essay declares its structure or methodology may vary widely, depending on how necessary that information will be to the readers. Sometimes, the entire first paragraph will serve no other purpose than to generate interest in the subject or raise a question, leaving the other tasks for the second paragraph.
For further information on the Annual Survey contact: Roger Smith, Annual Survey of hours and Earnings. A guide to the figures In 2017 the ons has also issued a guide to Interpreting the Annual Survey of hours and Earnings. This contains some additional information on the gender pay gap. High-level gender pay gap as much as 54.9 per cent The ons statistics have been supplemented by paper the tuc, whose analysis of official statistics shows that the highest paid men are paid.9 per cent more than their female colleagues. The tuc looked at the top 10 per cent of earners and showed the gap in annual salaries between men and women working full-time rose steadily through each percentile. The tucs analysis show the importance of drilling down into a dataset so as to produce figures such as the comparison between mens and womens annual earnings, and at earnings percentiles. This information used to be published by the ons, but is no longer publicly available. Employment Tribunal Statistics While the summary report on Statistics released by the ministry of Justice no longer reports on the number and type of employment cases being filed, plan the accompanying tables ( main Tables: October to december 2017 ) are a useful source of information.
For high earners (top decile the gap for full-time employees has remained largely consistent, fluctuating around approximately 20 per cent (18.2 per cent in 2017). For low earners (bottom decile) the gap has narrowed over the long term,.0 per cent in April 2017, an increase on the 2016 figure.9 per cent. The gender pay gap for full-time employees in the private sector decreased from.7 per cent in 2016.9 per cent in 2017, the lowest since the series began in 1997, continuing the long-term downward trend. The gender pay gap in the public sector increased from.1 per cent.1 per cent; this is the highest gender pay gap seen in the public sector since 1999. The gender pay gap has decreased for all uk countries since 1997. In 2017, England has the highest gender pay gap,.0 per cent. In recent years the gender pay gap for full-time employees in Northern Ireland has been below 0 per cent, that is, women earn more, on average, than men. This is, in part, due to a higher proportion of public sector jobs here than in the rest of the. There are more women employed in this sector than men and these jobs tend to be higher-paid, in general, than in the private sector.
Writing your Dissertation: Methodology skillsyouneed
However, for jobs where the number of paid hours worked by an employee is between 10 and 30, more women work in these jobs and the gender pay movie gap is in favour of women. For part-time employees separately, women are paid more per translation hour, on average than men, resulting in a negative pay gap. However, as with the full-time gender pay gap, this part-time gender pay gap moved closer to zero, from negative.1 per cent in April 2016 to negative.1 per cent in April 2017; this was because earnings for part-time men increased by more than for. The net impact of both the full-time and part-time gender pay gaps moving closer to zero, together with an increase in the proportion of employees working full-time versus part-time, is a marginal increase in the gap for all employees, from.2 per cent in 2016. Similar year-on-year increases have occurred in previous years, for example, in 20, but the longer-term trend is downward, from.5 per cent in 1997.
The gender pay gap also varies by age. Among full-time employees, the gap is relatively small up to and including those aged 35. For those aged 16 to 17 the gap is negative.5 per cent. From the 40 to 44 age group and upwards, the gap is much wider, with men being paid substantially more on average than women. This widening of the gap is likely to be connected with patterns of return to work after having children, in particular any differences between men and women in timing and nature of returning to the labour market. A negative gender pay gap among part-time employees emerges in the age group 30 to 34 (just after the average womens age for having a first birth) and increases for 35 to 39 year olds before beginning to be reversed.
Because the ons data does not, and cannot, take account of job demands the headline figures for the gender pay gap should not be treated as an indicator of whether women are receiving equal pay for equal work. The 2017 Annual Survey, on the 26th October 2017 the ons released provisional results for the. Annual Survey of hours and Earnings. Key points, in April 2017, the gender pay gap based on median hourly earnings for full-time employees decreased.1per cent, from.4 per cent in 2016. This is the lowest gap since the survey began in 1997. Taking all employees (full-time and part-time together men are paid more on average than women for all age groups (except those aged 16 to 17, see below).
This is because more women are working in part-time jobs (see below). Across all employees, the median hourly full-time pay in full-time jobs is higher than for part-time jobs by a factor of approximately.5 (9.11 compared with.00). The composition of the male and female employee workforces are quite different, with 42 per cent of women working part-time compared to only 12 per cent of men. Because the hourly earnings of part-time employees tend to be less, on average, than the earnings of full-time employees, women are more likely to receive lower hourly rates of pay. This helps explain why the gender pay gap for all full-time and part-time employees is greater than the gender pay gap for full-time employees only. Looking at the gender pay gap between part-time and full-time employees by the number of paid hours worked shows that typically, more men are employed in jobs that involve working a higher number of hours, and for these jobs, it can be seen that the.
What s in a methodology?
Results are produced by gender and by various industrial, occupational and geographic breakdowns, as well as by public and private sectors and age groups. Various methods can be used to measure the earnings of shredder women relative to men. The ons headline estimates of the gender pay gap are for hourly earnings excluding overtime. The ons uses median, rather than mean, earnings because the median is not affected by extreme values, such as changes in the earnings of small numbers of very high earners. However, as those on very high earnings are predominantly male, and those on very low earnings predominantly female, the mean is an important measure of womens experience of labour market disadvantage as compared to men, and one which allows international comparisons to be made. The ons also publishes a visual showing some of the differences in work force composition and how these relate to the gender pay gap. Equal pay for equal work, although median and mean hourly pay excluding overtime provide useful comparisons of mens and womens earnings, they do not reveal differences in rates of pay for comparable jobs, and it is rates of pay for comparable jobs which are the. While the Office for National Statistics rightly states that this is because such measures do not allow for the different employment characteristics of men and women, such as the proportion of men and women in different occupations and their length of time in jobs, the.
The Annual Survey issued by the Office of National Statistics is the key official source of information on the gender pay manager gap in the uk, but to get a full picture of womens earnings relative to mens it is important to read the annual survey. This is particularly so in 2017, when the way in which the figures are presented differs from the previous year. It is also, as some figures have been omitted from the summary report (e.g. The slight widening of the gender pay gap for workers in the lowest earnings decile) worth looking at the datasets behind the published headlines. You should also note that the figures published in October of each year (which tend to attract the most publicity) are provisional, with the actual figures following some months later. Methodology, at the whole economy level the gender pay gap is calculated from data drawn from the. Annual Survey of hours and Earnings (the Annual Survey which is carried out by the Office for National Statistics (the ons). . The Annual Survey is based on a 1 per cent sample of employee jobs, drawn from Her Majestys revenue and Customs pay as you earn records. The Annual Survey collects information on the levels, distribution and make-up of earnings and hours paid.
and womens log. Whilst.1 per cent of the difference can be explained by the difference in working patterns, men are more likely to work full-time, and full-time employees on average earn more. In other words, if women had the same returns to these characteristics as men and with all other factors held constant, women would still earn less on average than men because fewer women work in the highest-paying occupations and in full-time jobs. However, as the Office for National Statistics goes on to point out,.9 per cent of the gap cannot be explained, and suggests that the analysis would benefit from information on family structures, education and career breaks; without these the unexplained element is over-stated. Factors such as the number of children, the age of children, whether parents have any caring responsibilities, the number of years spent in school and the highest level of qualification achieved are likely to improve the estimation of mens and womens pay structures and consequently. As a result, the unexplained element should not be interpreted as a measure of discriminatory behaviour, though it is possible that this plays a part. You can find the analysis here, in March 2018 the Office for National Statistics published a brief analysis of the gender pay gap by size of business. You can find the tables here. The Annual Survey of hours and Earnings.
The most recent analysis of the gender pay gap. In January 2018 the Office for National Statistics published an analysis which uses regression techniques to provide more insight in to the factors which affect the gender pay gap. Using the headline measure of gender pay gap, the Office for National Statistics found the gender pay gap for full-time workers to be entirely in favour of men for all occupations. However, occupational crowding has an effect since those with the smallest gender pay gap also have almost equal employment remote shares between men and women. When looking at age groups, the gap for full-time workers remains small at younger ages. However, from 40 onwards the gender pay gap widens, reaching its peak between ages 50 to 59 for full-time workers. Modelling the factors that influence pay, the results showed that while both mens and womens pay grow for most of their lives, overall, womens pay grows less than mens and also stops growing earlier than mens pay. This applies to both the private and public sectors, but the returns to pay are slightly lower in the public sector.
Essay methodology Example
On this page you will find official sources of information on best the gender pay gap within the. you will also find information on the number and outcome of equal pay cases filed with the Employment Tribunal. For information on European statistics,. United Kingdom data on the gender pay gap. Some words of warning, always check whether the data refers to the United Kingdom, or to Britain. Some official data sources also provide information specifically on Scotland and Wales, but this is often inadequate. Also check the time frame within which the data is collected, as this may vary from one source to another, meaning that any comparisons have to be treated with caution.