Urban boys of this age today are unlikely to be able to distinguish from among domestic animals or be familiar with the names of the offspring of different animals. They are only familiar with their multi-storied buildings, and if they came to the village to visit and were asked by their grandmother to chop the wood, they often hurt their legs with the axe. The forefathers advice for kazak sons only works for rural ways. Koi jasy, when a boy reached fifteen years old, he was considered to be ready for the koi jas, a time when he would be trusted to graze the family sheep without supervision. The koi jas period lasted from ages fifteen to twenty five, and during that age he could marry. Camels and cows could usually be tended older family members, but kazakhs usually also had sheep, and horses reguiring more shepherding skills. To successfully perform koi jas duties, the teenager had be able to graze a flock of sheep in rainy, windy, or sunny weather, as well as to protect them from wolves and wild dogs. This was a difficult task, but the ultimate task for a young kazakh male.
Early learning Fellows Class Six
Wealthier people would slaughter a horse; those who couldn't afford this might butcher a fat goat to make their feast. Tokym kaqu, bastan, soon after Ashamai, or near the age of ten, the boy would ride his tai or young horse on his first long trip. His parents would wait for him and arrange tokim four Kagu, which meant "waiting for the boys quick arrival" from the trip. Again, they would invite guests while the father prepared the harness: a saddle, horse collar, harness strap, whip, bridle, stirrup strap, and breastplate all to be fastened to the saddle and saddle girth. Childhood for boys also involved other activities. Kozy jasy, after ten years of age, a boy would be considered to be on "kozi jas because at that age his parents would trust him to graze a lamb. It would be the beginning of labor training. Kazakhs from early times were concerned to bring up their children to be industrious. From an early age the boy could help his father to feed and graze cattle. In guitar such way he might become healthy and strong. It is still necessary in the rural places of kazakhstan to bring up boys to be able to look after the cattle.
It was made of wood according to the boys size. On the front and the back it had support or backing, but it had no stirrup. There was a soft essay pillow inside. The father put the ashamai on a horse and then placed his son. He would bind his son's two legs in order to protect him from falling, and he bridled the horse. Gradually the boy learned how to ride without his father's help. Almost half of a male kazakhs life was spent on a horse. That is why the ashamai is celebrated as the first attempt to ride a horse. This toi was also marked differently according to the family budget.
Sundet toi (Circumcision if the baby was a boy, four or five was the age for circumcision and another toi. It was one of the remarkable days of a boy's life. Again relatives and friends of the family gathered, ate, and had fun. All the above mentioned traditions, except Sundet, were celebrated in honor of both son and daughter. From this point on we'll talk about boys and girls upbringing separately, because a son's upbringing was accomplished by with the father, mini and a daughter's by the mother. Boys until the age of seven were believed to be too prone to injury for aiding their families. After this age they were increasingly encouraged to imitate their fathers, taking a stick and pretending to ride a horse, and watching how their fathers led the cattle to grazing. An ashamai is a kind of a saddle.
For the ceremony, black and white thread was prepared in advance to tie the baby's legs. The mother would ask one of the more energetic woman first to bind the baby; and then to cut the string. In this way the baby's first step would be toward his mother. Everybody would then wish the family great success for the baby's future. Here the reader might ask a question: Why use black and white thread instead of red or green? White is symbolized in this case to mean hopes for success without any obstacles. Black and white is associated with the concept of honesty, even to the level of taking a thread which does not belong to you. Cutting of such a thread meant if you see a person stealing something or an unpleasant situation, the watcher should try immediately to intervene.
William Doherty: How Therapy can be hazardous
Besik toi, the arrival of new birth, whether it be of a kinds foal, calf, or baby also involved another celebration called Besik toi. For babies, the tradition of Besikke salu was practiced and involved placing the baby in the cradle for the first time. Special foods are prepared, and all the relatives, neighbors, and nearby children are invited. Guests to the feast brought "Shashu or candies, kurts, and coins. The baby's cradle is made by a special master carver. Only women who have conceived their own children are allowed to place babies in their cradles, and any woman who would place a friend's baby in this place of honor must sew and present a new itkoiiek to the baby's mother.
The symbolism of the cradle is important in kazakh tradition, which may be one reason that the kazakhs art often call their native place "Golden Cradle." When a mullah would be present for the besik toi, he would shout the baby's new name into his ears. And in ancient times, seven items - including a whip, a bridle, a fur coat, and a blanket would be placed in the cradle. Each of these items meant something to the family. A bridle and a whip signified family hopes that the baby might ride a horse, be brave or even become a batyr. Tusau kesu, after the baby's cradle and crawling stage, the scene is set for another celebration: when the baby begins to walk for the first time. Wealthier parents would butcher a cow for this celebration; less wealthy parents, a sheep.
Zharys Kasan is a celebration on behalf of a long-expected and desired baby. Children have always been highly prized by the kazakhs. Kazakhs have always been known as a very generous people. For example, when an unexpected guest came to the house, the host would often butcher the only horse he owned in honor of the visitor. The same practice might be followed if the household was blessed with a child. Shildekhana, a second celebration of new life in the kazakh tradition was called the Shildekhana, and this gathering also included the participation of many young people.
All participants donned their best clothes and rode their horses to the event if they had one. Others rode their bulls, and sang songs en route to the celebration. Elders came to give a "Bata or blessing. Invited participants ate, had fun, and sang songs to the tune of the dombra, a traditional two-stringed instrument. Young people playing this instrument were expected to compose and improvise songs during the singing. During the Shildekhana, the godmother sliced the boiled fat from a sheep's tail and put it in the baby's mouth. In this way it was believed that the baby would learn how to suck. And the baby who was trained in such a manner was believed would never have stomach trouble.
The body and Society: Men, women, and Sexual
The painter said he resume would give him a pound. The man still hesitated. Come on, said the about painter, its an easy way to earn a pound. Oh, i know that, he answered. I was only wondering how I should get the paint off afterwards. B)Read the joke and say if the men were really eager to do what the sergeant asked them. Sergeant: Who likes moving pictures? (Most of men eagerly step forward.) All right, you fellows carry the pictures from the basement to the attic.
Iii e additional sources of information to find a biography of a painter. Make a short presentation. Oose a painting and try to analyze the means which the artist applied to make the message of the picture clear. A)Read the following joke about an artist and explain why the old man was hesitating. One day a painter, looking out of the window, saw an old countryman going by and thought the man would make a good writing subject for a picture. So he sent out his servant to tell the old man that his master would like to paint him. The old man hesitated and asked what the painter would pay him.
silver-tongued counsellors: dont marry a man for his rank, or a woman for her money: dont frequent foolish auctions and masquerade balls unknown to your husband: dont have wicked companions abroad and neglect your wife, otherwise you will be run. William makepeace Thackeray, the English Humourists of the eighteenth Century swer the questions: 1)What does, marriage a la mode describe? 2)What do you think about the names of Hogarths characters? What qualities of their owners do they suggest? 3)The author says that the pictures around the room are sly hints indicating the situation. 3.What do the following"tions from the text mean? 1)Whilst the steward is negotiating between the old couple, their children are together, united but apart. 2)The sense of the coronet pervades the picture, as it is supposed to do the mind of its wearer. 3)Madam has now the countesss coronet over her bed and toilet-glass.
The sense of the coronet pervades the picture, as it is supposed to do the mind of its wearer. The pictures round the room are sly hints indicating the situation of the parties about to marry. A martyr is led to the fire; Andromeda is offered to sacrifice; Judith is going to slay holofernes. There is the ancestor of the house (in the picture it is the earl himself as a young man with a comet over his head, indicating that the career of the family is to be brilliant and brief. In the second picture, madam has now the countesss coronet over her bed and toilet-glass, and sits listening to that dangerous counsellor Silvertongue, whose portrait now actually hangs up in her room, while the counsellor takes his ease on the sofa by her side, evidently. My lord takes his pleasure elsewhere than at writing home, whither he returns jaded and tipsy to find his wife yawning in her drawing-room, her whist-party over, and the daylight streaming in; or he amuses himself with the very worst company abroad, whilst his wife sits. The dismal end is known. My lord draws upon the counsellor, who kills him, and is apprehended whilst endeavouring to escape.
Artist, statement, writing Services Artsy Shark
The famous set of pictures called Marriage a la mode contains the most important and highly wrought of the hogarth comedies. The care and method with which the moral grounds of these pictures are laid is as remarkable as the wit and skill of the observing and dexterous artist. He has to describe the negotiations for a marriage pending between the daughter of a rich citizen Alderman and young Lord Viscount Squanderfield, the dissipated son of a gouty old Earl. Pride and pomposity appear in every accessory surrounding the earl. He sits in gold lace and velvet as how should such an Earl wear anything but velvet and gold lace? His coronet is everywhere: on his footstool on which reposes one gouty toe turned out; on the sconces and looking-glasses; on the dogs, on his lordships very crutches; on his great chair of state and the great baldaquin behind thesis him; under which he sits pointing. Whilst the steward is negotiating between the old couple, their children are together, united but apart. My lord is admiring his countenance in the glass, while the bride is twiddling her marriage ring on her pocket handkerchief and listening with rueful countenance to counsellor Silvertongue. The girl is pretty, but the painter with a curious watchfulness, has taken care to give her a likeness to her father, as in the young Viscounts face you see a resemblance to the earl, his noble sire.