Intended as stand-alone objects, Storyspace works are usually distributed as CDs (earlier as disks) for Macintosh or pc platforms and, more recently, in cross-platform versions. Along with Macintosh's Hypercard, it was the program of choice for many major writers of electronic literature in the late 1980's and 1990's. As the world Wide web developed, new authoring programs and methods of dissemination became available. The limitations of Storyspace as a web authoring program are significant (for example, it has a very limited palette of colors and cannot handle sound files that will play on the web). Although Storyspace continues to be used to produce interesting new works, it has consequently been eclipsed as the primary web authoring tool for electronic literature. With the movement to the web, the nature of electronic literature changed as well. Whereas early works tended to be blocks of text (traditionally called lexia) ( Note 6 ) with limited graphics, animation, colors and sound, later works make much fuller use of the multi-modal capabilities of the web; while the hypertext link is considered the distinguishing feature. In my keynote speech at the 2002 Electronic Literature symposium at ucla, these distinctions led me to call the early works "first-generation" and the later ones "second-generation with the break coming around 1995.
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Digital technologies are now so thoroughly integrated with commercial printing processes that print is more properly considered a particular output form of electronic text than an entirely separate medium. Nevertheless, electronic text remains distinct from print in that it literally cannot be book accessed until it is performed by properly executed code. The immediacy of code to the text's performance is fundamental to understanding electronic literature, especially to appreciating its specificity as a literary and technical production. Major genres in the canon of electronic literature emerge not only from different for ways in which the user experiences them but also from the structure and specificity of the underlying code. Not surprisingly, then, some genres have come to be known by the software used to create and perform them. The varieties of electronic literature are richly diverse, spanning all the types associated with print literature and adding some genres unique to networked and programmable media. Readers with only a slight familiarity with the field, however, will probably identify it first with hypertext fiction characterized by linking structures, such as Michael joyce's afternoon: a story note 3 stuart moulthrop's. Victory garden note 4 and Shelley jackson's, patchwork girl note 5 ). These works are written in Storyspace, the hypertext authoring program first created by michael joyce, jay david Bolter, and John. Smith and then licensed to mark bernstein of Eastgate systems, who has improved, extended, and maintained. So important was this software, especially to the early development of the field, that works created in it have come to be known as the Storyspace school.
The definition is fuller also slightly tautological, in that it assumes pre-existing knowledge of what constitutes an "important literary aspect." Although tautology is usually regarded by definition writers with all the gusto evoked by rat poison, in this case the tautology seems appropriate, for electronic literature. Readers come to digital work with expectations formed by print, including extensive and deep tacit knowledge of letter forms, print conventions, and print literary modes. Of necessity, electronic literature must build on these expectations even as it modifies and transforms them. At the same time, because electronic literature is normally created and performed within a context of networked and programmable media, it is also informed by the powerhouses of contemporary culture, particularly computer games, films, animations, digital arts, graphic design, and electronic visual culture. In this sense electronic literature is a "hopeful monster" (as geneticists call adaptive mutations) composed of parts taken from diverse traditions that may not always fit neatly together. Hybrid by nature, it comprises a trading zone (as Peter Galison calls it in a different context) in which different vocabularies, expertises and expectations come together to see what might come from their intercourse. Note 2 ) Electronic literature tests the boundaries of the literary and challenges us to re-think our assumptions of what literature can do and. 2 Genres of Electronic Literature, in the contemporary era, both print and electronic texts are deeply interpenetrated by code.
In brief, one cannot begin to answer the questions unless one has first thoroughly explored and understood the specificities of digital media. To see electronic literature only through the lens of print is, in a significant sense, not to see it at all. This essay aims to provide (some of) the context that will open the field of inquiry so that electronic literature can be understood as both partaking of literary tradition and introducing crucial transformations that redefine what literature. Electronic literature, generally considered to exclude print literature that has been digitized, is by contrast "digital born a first-generation digital object created on a computer and (usually) meant to be read on a computer. The Electronic Literature Organization, whose mission is to "promote the writing, publishing, and reading of literature in electronic media convened a committee headed by noah Wardrip-Fruin, himself a creator and critic of electronic literature, to come up with a definition appropriate to this new field. The committee's choice was framed to include both work performed in digital media and work created on a computer but published in print (as, for example, was Brian Kim Stefans's computer-generated poem "Stops and Rebels. The committee's formulation: "work with an important literary aspect that takes advantage of the capabilities and contexts provided by the stand-alone or networked computer.". As the committee points out, this definition raises questions about which capabilities and contexts of the computer are significant, directing attention not only toward the changing nature of computers but also the new and different ways in which the literary community mobilizes these capabilities.
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When he demanded to see it, Brother Jacob shamefacedly produced a codex, but not one that homework the antiquarii of this monastery had copied — or of any monastery, for this Psalter was printed. Shocked as much by the sight of the mechanical type as Brother Jacob's transgression, Brother paul so far forgot himself that he too broke the silence, thundering that if books could be produced by fast, cheap and mechanical means, their value as precious artifacts would. Moreover, if any Thomas, richard or Harold could find his way into print, would not writing itself be compromised and become commonplace scribbling? And how would the spread of cheap printed materials affect the culture of the word, bringing scribbling into every hut and hovel whose occupants had hitherto relied on priests to interpret writing for them? The questions hung in the air; none dared imagine what answers the passing of time would bring. This fanciful scenario is meant to suggest that the place of writing is again in turmoil, roiled now not by the invention of print books but the emergence of electronic literature. Just as the history of print literature is deeply bound up with the evolution of book technology as it built on wave after wave of technical innovations, so the history of electronic literature is entwined with the evolution of digital computers as they shrank from.
The questions that troubled the Scriptorium are remarkably similar to issues debated today within literary communities. Is electronic literature really literature at all? Will the dissemination mechanisms of the Internet and World Wide web, by opening publication to everyone, result in a flood of worthless drivel? Is literary quality possible in digital media, or is electronic literature demonstrably inferior to the print canon? What large-scale social and cultural changes are bound up with the spread of digital culture, and what do they portend for the future of writing? Note 1 these questions cannot be answered without first considering the contexts that give them meaning and significance, and that implies a wide-ranging exploration of what electronic literature is, resume how it overlaps and diverges from print, what signifying strategies characterize it, and how these strategies.
Katherine hayles opens the aperture more widely and the angle differs slightly as well. Her electronic literature "primer" is a wide-ranging essay that takes the pulse of the e-literature field at this particular moment, reminding us that "literature" has always been a contested category. Both essays are major contributions to the study of electronic/new media literature — useful, i believe, to those readers new to digital literature as well as those writers, critics and teachers who have helped develop or actively follow and critique the development of literature. While both hayles and Tabbi agree on many points (and cover some of the same territory there are also some interesting differences between the essays. Katherine hayles is largely concerned with defining a field, joseph Tabbi is concerned more with defining the possibility and conditions of literature's persistence in digital environments. The authors pitch their respective 'approaches' to different audiences; each seems to have a different sense of what needs to be done first — critique digital literary works (Hayles) or define the conditions for the emergence of possible digital literary works (Tabbi).
Both strike me as equally important. And most of us in the Electronic Literature Organization believe that the two critical orientations represented work together. In short, you can't have one without the other, and you can't have anything at all without the pragmatic, writerly tactics employed in the 'two bits' essays already online in the elo library. 1 a context for Electronic Literature. The Scriptorium was in turmoil. Brother paul, the precentor in charge, had detected a murmur from the back row and, furious that the rule of silence was being compromised, strode down the aisle just in time to see brother Jacob tuck something under his robe.
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Abstract, this essay surveys the development and current state of electronic literature, from the popularity of hypertext fiction in the 1980's to the present, focusing primarily on hypertext fiction, network fiction, interactive fiction, locative narratives, installation pieces, "codework generative art and the Flash poem. It also discusses the central critical issues raised by electronic literature, pointing out that there is significant general overlap with the print tradition. At the same time, the essay argues that the practices, texts, procedures, and processual nature of electronic literature require new critical models and new ways of playing and interpreting the works. A final section discusses the Preservation, Archiving and Dissemination (PAD) initiative of the Electronic Literature Organization, including the Electronic Literature collection Volume i and the two white papers that are companion pieces to this essay, "Acid Free bits" and "Born Again Bits." Intended audiences include. Because this essay is the first systematic attempt to survey and summarize the fast-changing field of electronic literature, artists, designers, writers, critics, and other stakeholders may find it useful as an overview, with emphasis on recent creative and critical works. Preface, thom Swiss, Professor, University of Minnesota. The" joseph Tabbi employs from Don delillo for the epigraph to his essay is a helpful one: "you didn't see the thing because you didn't know how to look. And you don't know how to look because you don't know the names." delillo's words orient us in the direction of the language-driven, social work that Tabbi argues for in his vision of a semantic literary web.
Diverse Issues in Higher Education. External links edit coordinates : 34263.68N 1194250.19W /.4343556N 119.7139417W /.4343556; -119.7139417 Retrieved from " "). Click on the ( ) to get the detailed assignment sheet and a list of topics to be covered for each unit of study. . Click on the ( ) to go to a page filled with extensive web links to sites and many primary source reviews documents for that unit of study. Electronic Literature: What is it? Katherine hayles (ucla contents. Abstract, preface 1 a context For Electronic Literature 2 Genres of Electronic Literature 3 Electronic Literature Is Not Print 4 Preservation, Archiving, and Dissemination, notes.
selected as a member of the carnegie project on the Education Doctorate (cped a collaboration of 87 institutions focused on redesigning doctorate in education (EdD) programs. 6 It also was one of 240 schools selected for the 2015 Community Engagement Classification from the carnegie foundation for the Advancement of teaching. 7 better source needed The university has been named one of the top 100 Graduate degree producers for Minorities by diverse Issues in Higher Education magazine. 8 References edit fielding quick facts "Fielding Graduate University history". "Fielding Graduate University news". wasc, "Statement of Accreditation Status: fielding Graduate University", wascsenior. Org, wasc senior College and University commission, retrieved may 15, 2016 "Fielding Graduate University". fielding Graduate University Press Release (January 13, 2015 "Fielding Graduate University Awarded the carnegie foundation Advancement of teaching for Community Engagement Classification", santa barbara Independent, m, retrieved may 15, 2016 "Top 100 Degree producers: Graduate and Professional".
The professions targeted include clinical psychology, media psychology, educational leadership, organizational leadership, and human development, within the corporate, resume nonprofit, and public sectors. Fielding was the first university to offer. D program in media psychology. Citation needed, fielding's learning model implements a student learning plan, contract-based learning, competency-based assessment, student-to-student peer feedback, project and portfolio reviews, and final thesis or dissertation. Fielding Graduate University is a 501(c 3) nonprofit organization accredited by the Accrediting Commission for Senior Colleges and Universities of the western Association of Schools and Colleges (wasc). 4 fieldings School of Psychology offers the only accredited clinical psychology doctoral program using a distributed delivery model. The program is accredited by the American Psychological Association (apa commission on Accreditation, 750 First. Ne, washington, dc 20002, 202.336.5979).
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From wikipedia, the write free encyclopedia, jump to navigation, jump to search. Fielding Graduate University (previously, fielding Graduate Institute and, the fielding Institute ) is a university in, santa barbara, california. It offers postgraduate and doctoral studies mainly in psychology, education and organizational studies, primarily through distance education programs. Fielding Graduate University was founded in 1974. Hudson, hallock hoffman, and Renata tesch. 2, they designed fielding as a graduate program for mid-career professionals who were not being served by traditional universities. Contents, academics edit, the university offers graduate programs for adult professionals seeking master's and doctoral degrees. It offers degree and certificate programs through the School of Psychology and School of leadership Studies. The programs include online learning, individual faculty-student mentoring and assessment, and in-person events of various types in many locations throughout the year.