22 In 1919, he became the general secretary of the same organisation. Iqbal's thoughts in his work primarily focus on the spiritual direction and development of human society, centred around experiences from his travels and stays in Western Europe and the middle east. He was profoundly influenced by western philosophers such as Friedrich nietzsche, henri bergson and goethe. 19 30 The poetry and philosophy of Mawlana rumi bore the deepest influence on Iqbal's mind. Deeply grounded in religion since childhood, Iqbal began concentrating intensely on the study of Islam, the culture and history of Islamic civilisation and its political future, while embracing Rumi as "his guide". 19 Iqbal would feature rumi in the role of guide in many of his poems. Iqbal's works focus on reminding his readers of the past glories of Islamic civilisation, and delivering the message of a pure, spiritual focus on Islam as a source for socio-political liberation and greatness.
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During Iqbal's stay in story heidelberg in 1907 his German professor Emma wegenast taught him about goethe 's faust, heine and nietzsche. 30 During his study in Europe, iqbal began to write poetry in Persian. He prioritised it because he believed he had found an easy way to express his thoughts. He would write continuously in Persian throughout his life. 12 Iqbal had a great interest in Islamic studies, especially sufi beliefs. Much of it can be evident from his poetry, in which apart from the independence ideologies he also explores concepts of submission to Allah and following the path of Prophet Muhammad. Academic career edit Photograph taken during Allama Iqbal's youth in 1899 Iqbal, after completing his Master of Arts degree in 1899, began his career as a reader of Arabic at Oriental College and shortly afterwards was selected as a junior professor of philosophy at government. He worked there until he left for England in 1905. In 1908, he returned from England and joined the same college again as a professor of philosophy and English literature. 31 In the same period Iqbal began practising law at Chief court Lahore, but he soon quit law practice and devoted himself in literary works, becoming an active member of Anjuman-e-himayat-e-islam.
Later summary Iqbal married Sardar Begum, and they became the parents of a son, javed Iqbal, who was to become a judge. Iqbal's third marriage was with mukhtar Begum and it was held in December 1914, shortly after the death of Iqbal's mother in november the same year. 11 22 Higher education in Europe edit Iqbal was influenced by the teachings of Sir Thomas Arnold, his philosophy teacher at government college lahore. Arnold's teachings determined Iqbal to pursue higher education in the west, and in 1905, he travelled to England for that purpose. Iqbal qualified for a scholarship from Trinity college, university of Cambridge and obtained Bachelor of Arts in 1906, and in the same year he was called to the bar as a barrister from Lincoln's Inn. In 1907, Iqbal moved to germany to pursue his doctoral studies, and earned a doctor of Philosophy degree from the ludwig Maximilian University of Munich in 1908. Working under the guidance of Friedrich Hommel, iqbal's doctoral thesis entitled The development of Metaphysics in Persia was published.
23 he received Intermediate with the faculty of Arts diploma in 1895. The same year he enrolled at government College University, where he obtained his Bachelor of Arts in philosophy, english literature and Arabic in 1897, and won the Khan Bahadurddin. Jalaluddin medal as he performed well in Arabic. 22 In 1899, he received his Master of Arts degree from the same college and had the first place in University of the punjab. Marriages edit Iqbal married three times. His first marriage was the held in 1895, when he was 18 years old, shortly after he had completed his Intermediate and enrolled at government College, lahore. The bride, karim Bibi, was the daughter of physician Khan Bahadur Ata muhammad Khan. Her sister was the mother of director and music composer Khwaja Khurshid Anwar. 25 26 The match was arranged by their families in the usual Indian manner, and the couple were blessed with two children, a daughter Miraj Begum and a son, Aftab Iqbal.
She died on 9 november 1914 in sialkot. 21 22 Iqbal loved his mother, and on her death he expressed his feelings of pathos in a poetic form elegy. 19 Who would wait for me anxiously in my native place? Who would display restlessness if my letter fails to arrive? I will visit thy grave with this complaint: Who will now think of me in midnight prayers? All thy life thy love served me with devotion— When I became fit to serve thee, thou hast departed. 19 Early education edit Iqbal was four years old when he was admitted to the mosque to learn the qur'an. He learned the Arabic language from his teacher, syed Mir Hassan, the head of the madrasa and professor of Arabic at Scotch Mission College in sialkot, where he matriculated in 1893.
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15 better source needed It was protected under the punjab Antiquities Act of 1975, and declared a pakistani national monument in 1977. 15 better source needed contents Personal life edit background edit Iqbal business was born on 9 november 1877 in an ethnic Kashmiri family in Gujrat within the punjab Province of British laundering India (now in pakistan). 16 His grandfather's name was Sheikh Mohammad Rafique. His ancestors were kashmiri Brahmins of the sapru clan and had converted to Islam around 200 years ago in the time of Bud Shah. The first ancestor to convert to Islam has been identified as Haji lal, a sufi mystic so named because of his love for Haj. 17 In the 19th century, when the sikh Empire was conquering Kashmir, his grandfather's family migrated to punjab.
Iqbal often mentioned and commemorated his Kashmiri lineage in his writings. 18 12 Allama Iqbal with his son javed Iqbal in 1930 Iqbal's mother, who died on 9 november 1914. Iqbal expressed his feeling of pathos in a poetic form after her death. Iqbal's father, Sheikh noor Muhammad (died 1930 was a tailor, not formally educated but a religious man. 19 20 Iqbal's mother Imam Bibi, a punjabi muslim from sialkot, was described as a polite and humble woman who helped the poor and her neighbours with their problems.
8 Along with his Urdu and Persian poetry, his Urdu and English lectures and letters have been very influential in cultural, social, religious and political disputes. 8 In 1923, he was knighted by king george v, 9 granting him the title "Sir". 10 While studying law and philosophy in England, Iqbal became a member of the london branch of the All-India muslim league. 7 8 Later, during the league's December 1930 session, he delivered his most famous presidential speech known as the Allahabad Address in which he pushed for the creation of a muslim state in northwest India. 7 8 In much of south Asia and the Urdu-speaking world, Iqbal is regarded as the Shair-e-mashriq ( Urdu :, "Poet of the east.
11 12 he is also called Mufakkir-e-pakistan ( Urdu :, "The Thinker of pakistan musawar-e-pakistan ( Urdu :, "Artist of pakistan and hakeem-ul-Ummat ( Urdu :, "The sage of the Ummah. The pakistan government officially named him " National poet of pakistan". 7 His birthday yōm-e welādat-e muammad Iqbāl ( Urdu : or Iqbal day, is a public holiday in pakistan. 14 Iqbal's house is still located in sialkot and is recognized as Iqbal's Manzil and is open for visitors. His other house where he lived most of his life and died is in Lahore, named as javed Manzil.( "javed Manzil". Retrieved.) The museum is located on Allama Iqbal road near Lahore railway station, punjab, pakistan.
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He is called the "Spiritual Father. Pakistan." 3, he daddy is considered one of the most important figures. Urdu literature, 4 with literary work in both, urdu and, persian. Iqbal is admired as a prominent poet. Indians, pakistanis, iranians and other international scholars of literature. 5 7, though Iqbal is best known as an eminent poet, he is also a highly acclaimed "Muslim philosophical thinker of modern times". 2 7, his first poetry book, the secrets of the self, appeared in the persian language in 1915, and other books of poetry include. The secrets of Selflessness, message from the east and, persian Psalms. Amongst these, his best known Urdu works are The call of the marching Bell, gabriel's Wing, the rod of Moses and a part of Gift from Hijaz.
For this, he was honoured business by the government and is a recipient of Sitara-e-imtiaz which was honoured to him in 1999. In 2005, he became founding director of the center for Earthquake studies (CES) after experiencing the disastrous 2005 pakistan earthquake., he has been a public figure educating the country on seismic activities and earthquake sciences. 8 In 2008, mubarak became senior scientist at the Global Network for the forecasting of Earthquakes and currently serving as the chief scientist representing pakistan. 9 In 2010, mubarak became visiting professor of geophysics at the department of Earth Sciences of the quaid-i-azam University. 3 References edit retrieved from " p? For other people named Muhammad Iqbal, see. Muhammad Iqbal urdu : ) (november 9, 1877 April 21, 1938 widely known. Allama Iqbal, was a poet, philosopher, and politician, as well as an academic, barrister and scholar 1 2 in, british India who is widely regarded as having inspired the.
materials and facilitated drafts instead of purchasing the entire site which paec can built ingeniously. Ahsan Mubarak was recruited by fellow scientist and nuclear physicist. Ishfaq Ahmad to join the country's clandestine, large-scale atomic bomb project in 1976. He was a part of paec team led by Ishfaq Ahmad which commenced a three-dimensional space survey to find a suitable location for an underground nuclear test, preferably a mountain. 7 The over span of three days and had made several reconnaissance tours of the areas of Balochistan Province. 7 he helped to develop a wide range three-dimensional sites to conduct the nuclear tests, and was set as team leader of a study group to study the effects of blast waves, shock waves and seismic waves generated by the weapon to effect the shape. 7 Ahsan was among the few scientists who were actually inivited to eye-witness the first nuclear tests conducted in 1998, see codenames Chagai-i and Chagai-ii. While at the detonation process, mubarak helped the mathematical Physics Group (MPG) to calculate and approximate the exact yield generated by the devices.
Pakistan Atomic Energy commission (paec) in 1960s. In 1961, Ahsan joined database the paec and earned a scholarship for his doctoral studies. In 1962, Ahsan joined the doctoral programme of the. London University, and began doctoral research on geophysics. In 1966, Ahsan was awarded. Doctor of Science in geophysics after writing a brief thesis. Radiometric dating and its relative expansion on the. In 1967, mubarak return to his country and joined the senior staff of the paec where he engage research. Seismic waves and the, exploration geophysics.
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From wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, jump to navigation, jump to search. Ahsan Mubarak urdu: ; si, dsc is a pakistani geophysicist and nuclear seismologist who is renowned for his pioneering research on earthquake sciences, and seismic activities in biography pakistan. 1, he is the current director of the. Center for Earthquake studies (ces 2 senior scientist at the, global Network for the forecasting of Earthquakes (gnfe) 3 and a visiting professor of geophysics at the. Biography edit, ahsan attended and graduated from the. Karachi University, where he gained BSc. Physics and ba in Mathematics, followed by double msc in Mathematics and geology. After his master's degree, ahsan served as lecturer in geology and taught undergraduate courses on Mathematics before joining the.