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Australopithecus boisei (was Zinjanthropus boisei ). Boisei existed between.1 and.1 million years ago. It was similar to robustus, but the face and cheek teeth were even more massive, some molars being up to 2 cm across. The brain size is very similar to robustus, about 530. A few experts consider boisei and robustus to be variants of the same species. Australopithecus aethiopicus, robustus and boisei are known as robust australopithecines, because their skulls in particular are more heavily built.

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Boisei (leakey and Lewin 1992). (A sagittal crest is a bony ridge on top of the skull to which chewing muscles attach.) Australopithecus robustus. Robustus had a body similar to that of africanus, but a larger and more robust skull and teeth. It existed between 2 artist and.5 million years ago. The massive face is flat or dished, with no forehead and large brow ridges. It has relatively small front teeth, but massive grinding teeth in a large lower jaw. Most specimens have sagittal crests. Its diet would have been mostly coarse, tough food that needed a lot of chewing. The average brain size is about 530. Bones excavated with robustus skeletons indicate that they may have been used as digging tools.

The boy's skull has a first volume of 420 cc, and both fossils are short, about 130 cm (4'3. Australopithecus afarensis and africanus, and the other species above, are known as gracile australopithecines, because their skulls and teeth are not as large and strong as those of the following species, which are known as the robust australopithecines. (Gracile means "slender and in paleoanthropology is used as an antonym to "robust".) Despite this, they were still more robust than modern humans. Aethiopicus existed between.6 and.3 million years ago. This species is known from one major specimen, the Black skull discovered by Alan Walker, and a few other minor specimens which may belong to the same species. It may be an ancestor of robustus and boisei, but it has a baffling mixture of primitive and advanced traits. The brain size is very small, at 410 cc, and parts of the skull, particularly the hind portions, are very primitive, most resembling afarensis. Other characteristics, like the massiveness of the face, jaws and single tooth found, and the largest sagittal crest in any known hominid, are more reminiscent.

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Some nearby skeletal remains may belong to the same species. They show a long humanlike ratio of the humerus and femur, but an apelike ratio of the lower and upper arm. ( Groves 1999 ; Culotta 1999) Australopithecus sediba. Sediba was discovered at the site of Malapa in south Africa in 2008. Two partial skeletons were found, of a young boy and an adult female, dated between.78 and.95 million years ago (Berger. It is claimed by its finders to be transitional between. Africanus and Homo and, because it is more similar to homo than any other australopithecine, a possible candidate for the ancestor of Homo. Sediba was bipedal with long arms suitable for climbing, but had a number of humanlike traits in the skull, teeth and pelvis.

This is a little larger than chimp brains (despite a similar body size but still not advanced in the areas necessary for speech. The back teeth were a little bigger than in afarensis. Although the teeth and jaws of africanus are much larger than those of humans, they are far more similar to human teeth than to those of apes (Johanson and Edey 1981). The shape of the jaw is now fully parabolic, like that of humans, and the size of the canine teeth is further reduced compared to afarensis. Australopithecus garhi This species was named in April 1999 (Asfaw. It is known from a partial skull. The skull differs from previous australopithecine species in the combination of its features, notably the extremely large size of its teeth, especially the rear ones, and a primitive skull morphology.

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Their bones show that they were physically very strong. Females were substantially smaller than males, a condition known as sexual dimorphism. Height varied between about 107 cm (3'6 and 152 cm (5'0. The finger and toe bones are write curved and proportionally longer than in humans, but the hands are similar to humans in most other details (Johanson and Edey 1981). Most scientists consider this evidence that afarensis was still partially adapted to climbing in trees, others consider it evolutionary baggage. Kenyanthropus platyops This pdf species was named in 2001 from a partial skull found in Kenya with an unusual mixture of features (leakey.

It is aged about.5 million years old. The size of the skull is similar. Africanus, and has a large, flat face and small teeth. Africanus existed between 3 and 2 million years ago. It is similar to afarensis, and was also bipedal, but body size was slightly greater. Brain size may also have been slightly larger, ranging between 420 and 500.

Australopithecus anamensis This species was named in August 1995 (leakey. The material consists of 9 fossils, mostly found in 1994, from Kanapoi in Kenya, and 12 fossils, mostly teeth found in 1988, from Allia bay in Kenya (leakey. Anamensis existed between.2 and.9 million years ago, and has a mixture of primitive features in the skull, and advanced features in the body. The teeth and jaws are very similar to those of older fossil apes. A partial tibia (the larger of the two lower leg bones) is strong evidence of bipedality, and a lower humerus (the upper arm bone) is extremely humanlike.

Note that although the skull and skeletal bones are thought to be from the same species, this is not confirmed. Afarensis existed between.9 and.0 million years ago. Afarensis had an apelike face with a low forehead, a bony ridge over the eyes, a flat nose, and no chin. They had protruding jaws with large back teeth. Cranial capacity varied from about 375 to 550. The skull is similar to that of a chimpanzee, except for the more humanlike teeth. The canine teeth are much smaller than those of modern apes, but larger and more pointed than those of humans, and shape of the jaw is between the rectangular shape of apes and the parabolic shape of humans. However their pelvis and leg bones far more closely resemble those of modern man, and leave no doubt that they were bipedal (although adapted to walking rather than running (leakey 1994).

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It was published in October 2009, and statement given the nickname 'ardi'. Ramidus was about 120 cm (3'11 tall and weighed about 50 kg (110 lbs). The skull and brain are small, about the size of a chimpanzee. It was bipedal on the ground, though not as well adapted to bipedalism as the australopithecines were, and quadrupedal in the trees. It lived book in a woodland environment with patches of forest, indicating that bipedalism did not originate in a savannah environment. A number of fragmentary fossils discovered between 19, and dating from.2.8 million years old, were originally assigned to a new subspecies, Ardipithecus ramidus kadabba (Haile-selassie 2001 and later to a new species, Ardipithecus kadabba (Haile-selassie. One of these fossils is a toe bone belonging to a bipedal creature, but is a few hundred thousand years younger than the rest of the fossils and so its identification with kadabba is not as firm as the other fossils.

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Its finders have claimed that Orrorin was a human ancestor adapted to both bipedality and tree climbing, and that the australopithecines are an extinct offshoot. Given the fragmentary nature of the remains, other scientists have been skeptical of these claims so far (Aiello and Collard 2001). A later paper (Galik. 2004) has found further evidence of bipedality in the fossil femur. Ardipithecus ramidus This species was named summary Australopithecus ramidus in September 1994 (White. 1994; wood 1994) from some fragmentary fossils dated.4 million years. A more complete skull and partial skeleton was discovered in late 1994 and based on that fossil, the species was reallocated to the genus Ardipithecus (White. This fossil was extremely fragile, and excavation, restoration and analysis of it took 15 years.

has a very small brain size of approximately 350. It is not known whether it was bipedal. Tchadensis has many primitive apelike features, such as the small brainsize, along with others, such as the brow ridges and small canine teeth, which are characteristic of later hominids. This mixture, along with the fact that it comes from around the time when the hominids are thought to have diverged from chimpanzees, suggests it is close to the common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees. Orrorin tugenensis This species was named in July 2001 from fossils discovered in western Kenya (Senut. The fossils include fragmentary arm and thigh bones, lower jaws, and teeth and were discovered in deposits that are about 6 million years old. The limb bones are about.5 times larger than those of Lucy, and suggest that it was about the size of a female chimpanzee.

The field of science which studies the human fossil record is known as paleoanthropology. It is the intersection of the disciplines of paleontology (the study of ancient lifeforms) and anthropology (the study of humans). The species here are listed roughly in order of appearance in the fossil record (note that this ordering is not meant to represent an evolutionary sequence except that the robust australopithecines are kept together. Each name write consists of a genus name (e.g. Australopithecus, homo ) which is always capitalized, and a specific name (e.g. Africanus, erectus ) which is always in lower case. Within the text, genus names are often omitted for brevity. Each species has a type specimen which was used to define. Sahelanthropus tchadensis, this species was named in July 2002 from fossils discovered in Chad in Central Africa (Brunet.

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Hominid Species, the word "hominid" in this website refers to members of the family presentation of humans, hominidae, which consists of all species on our side of the last common ancestor of humans and living apes. Hominids are included in the superfamily of all apes, the hominoidea, the members of which are called hominoids. Although the hominid fossil record is far from complete, and the evidence is often fragmentary, there is enough to give a good outline of the evolutionary history of humans. The time of the split between humans and living apes used to be thought to have occurred 15 to 20 million years ago, or even up to 30 or 40 million years ago. Some apes occurring within that time period, such as Ramapithecus, used to be considered as hominids, and possible ancestors of humans. Later fossil finds indicated that. Ramapithecus was more closely related to the orang-utan, and new biochemical evidence indicated that the last common ancestor of hominids and apes occurred between 5 and 10 million years ago, and probably in the lower end of that range (Lewin 1987). Ramapithecus therefore is no longer considered a hominid.

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