55 56 In a narrower sense, atheism is specifically the position that there are no deities. 57 Anthropomorphism main article: Anthropomorphism Pascal boyer argues that while there is a wide array of supernatural concepts found around the world, in general, supernatural beings tend to behave much like people. The construction of gods and spirits like persons is one of the best known traits of religion. He cites examples from Greek mythology, which is, in his opinion, more like a modern soap opera than other religious systems. 58 Bertrand du castel and Timothy jurgensen demonstrate through formalization that boyer's explanatory model matches physics' epistemology in positing not directly observable entities as intermediaries. 59 Anthropologist Stewart Guthrie contends that people project human features onto non-human aspects of the world because it makes those aspects more familiar. Sigmund Freud also suggested that god concepts are projections of one's father.
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The nineteenth-century English atheist Charles Bradlaugh declared that he refused to say "There is no god because "the word 'god' is to me a sound conveying no clear or distinct affirmation 47 he said more specifically that he disbelieved in the Christian god. Stephen jay gould essay proposed an approach dividing the world of philosophy into what he called " non-overlapping magisteria " (noma). In this view, questions of the supernatural, such as those relating to the existence and nature of God, are non - empirical and are the proper domain of theology. The methods of science should then be used to answer any empirical question about the natural world, and theology should be used to answer questions about ultimate meaning and moral value. In this view, the perceived lack of any empirical footprint from the magisterium of the supernatural onto natural events makes science the sole player in the natural world. 48 Another view, advanced by richard Dawkins, is that the existence of God is an empirical question, on the grounds that "a universe with a god would be a completely different kind of universe from one without, and it would be a scientific difference.". 50 Stephen Hawking and co-author leonard Mlodinow state in their book, the Grand Design, that it is reasonable to ask who or what created the universe, but if the answer is God, then the question has merely been deflected to that of who created God. Both authors claim however, that it is possible to answer these questions purely within the realm of science, and without invoking any divine beings. 51 Agnosticism and atheism Agnosticism is the view that the truth values of certain claims especially metaphysical and religious claims such as whether God, the divine or the supernatural exist are unknown and perhaps unknowable. Atheism is, in a broad sense, the rejection of belief in the existence of deities.dissertation
Citation needed Other concepts Dystheism, which is related to theodicy, is a form of theism which holds that God is either not wholly good or is fully malevolent as remote a consequence of the problem of evil. One such example comes from Dostoevsky 's The Brothers Karamazov, in which ivan Karamazov rejects God on the grounds that he allows children to suffer. 44 In modern times, some more abstract concepts have been developed, such as process theology and open theism. The contemporaneous French philosopher Michel Henry has however proposed a phenomenological approach and definition of God as phenomenological essence of Life. 45 God has also been conceived as being incorporeal (immaterial a personal being, the source of all moral obligation, and the "greatest conceivable existent". 3 These attributes were all supported to varying degrees by the early jewish, christian and Muslim theologian philosophers, including maimonides, 46 Augustine of Hippo, 46 and Al-Ghazali, 7 respectively. Non-theistic views see also: evolutionary origin of religions and evolutionary psychology of religion Non-theist views about God also vary. Some non-theists avoid the concept of God, whilst accepting that it is significant to many; other non-theists understand God as a symbol of human values and aspirations.
E., monotheism or polytheism. 37 38 God blessing the seventh day, a watercolor painting depicting God, by william Blake (17571827) deism holds that thesis God is wholly transcendent : God exists, but does not intervene in the world beyond what was necessary to create. 36 In this view, god is not anthropomorphic, and neither answers prayers nor produces miracles. Common in deism is a belief that God has no interest in humanity and may not even be aware of humanity. Pandeism combines deism with Pantheistic beliefs. 8 39 40 Pandeism is proposed to explain as to deism why god would create a universe and then abandon it, 41 and as to pantheism, the origin and purpose of the universe. 41 42 Pantheism holds that God is the universe and the universe is God, whereas Panentheism holds that God contains, but is not identical to, the Universe. 43 It is also the view of the liberal Catholic Church ; Theosophy ; some views of Hinduism except vaishnavism, which believes in panentheism; sikhism; some divisions of neopaganism and taoism, along with many varying denominations and individuals within denominations. Kabbalah, jewish mysticism, paints a pantheistic/panentheistic view of God—which has wide acceptance in Hasidic Judaism, particularly from their founder The baal Shem tov —but only as an addition to the jewish view of a personal god, not in the original pantheistic sense that denies.
34 Theism, deism, and pantheism main articles: Theism, deism, and Pantheism Theism generally holds that God exists realistically, objectively, and independently of human thought; that God created and sustains everything; that God is omnipotent and eternal; and that God is personal and interacting with the. 35 Theism holds that God is both transcendent and immanent; thus, god is simultaneously infinite and, in some way, present in the affairs of the world. 36 Not all theists subscribe to all of these propositions, but each usually subscribes to some of them (see, by way of comparison, family resemblance ). 35 Catholic theology holds that God is infinitely simple and is not involuntarily subject to time. Most theists hold that God is omnipotent, omniscient, and benevolent, although this belief raises questions about God's responsibility for evil and suffering in the world. Some theists ascribe to god a self-conscious or purposeful limiting of omnipotence, omniscience, or benevolence. Open Theism, by contrast, contends that, due to the nature of time, god's omniscience does not mean the deity can predict the future. Theism is sometimes used to refer in general to any belief in a god or gods,.
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The dharmic religions differ in their view of the divine: views of God in Hinduism vary by region, sect, and caste, ranging from monotheistic to polytheistic. Many polytheistic religions share the idea of a creator deity, though having a name other than "God" and without all of the other roles attributed to a singular essay God by monotheistic religions. Jainism is polytheistic and non-creationist. Depending on one's interpretation and tradition, buddhism can be conceived as being either atheistic, non-theistic, pantheistic, panentheistic, or polytheistic. Oneness main articles: Monotheism and Henotheism The Trinity is the belief that God is composed of The father, the son (embodied metaphysically in the physical realm by jesus and The holy Spirit. Monotheists hold that there is only one god, and may claim that the one true god is worshiped in different religions under different names. The view that all theists actually worship the same god, whether they know it or not, is especially emphasized in the bahá'í faith, hinduism 28 and sikhism.
29 In Christianity, the doctrine of the Trinity describes God as one god in three persons. The Trinity comprises God the father, god the son (embodied metaphysically by jesus and The holy Spirit. 30 Islam 's most fundamental concept is tawhid (meaning "oneness" or "uniqueness. God is described in the quran as: "Say: he is Allah, the One and Only; Allah, the Eternal, Absolute; he begetteth not, nor is he begotten; And there is none like unto him." 31 32 Muslims repudiate the Christian doctrine of the Trinity and the. In Islam, god is beyond all comprehension or equal and does not resemble any of his creations in any way. Thus, muslims are not iconodules, and are not expected to visualize god. 33 Henotheism is the belief and worship of a single god while accepting the existence or possible existence of other deities.
25 Ahura mazda is the name for God used in Zoroastrianism. "Mazda or rather the avestan stem-form mazdā-, nominative mazdå, reflects Proto-Iranian *Mazdāh (female). It is generally taken to be the proper name of the spirit, and like its Sanskrit cognate medhā, means " intelligence " or " wisdom ". Both the avestan and Sanskrit words reflect Proto-Indo-Iranian *mazdhā-, from Proto-Indo-european mnsdeh1, literally meaning "placing ( deh1 ) one's mind ( *mn-s hence "wise". Waheguru ( Punjabi : vāhigurū ) is a term most often used in sikhism to refer to god.
It means "Wonderful teacher" in the punjabi language. Vāhi (a middle persian borrowing) means "wonderful" and guru ( Sanskrit : guru ) is a term denoting "teacher". Waheguru is also described by some as an experience of ecstasy which is beyond all descriptions. The most common usage of the word "Waheguru" is in the greeting sikhs use with each other: Waheguru ji ka khalsa, waheguru ji ki fateh Wonderful Lord's Khalsa, victory is to the wonderful Lord. Baha, the "greatest" name for God in the baha'i faith, is Arabic for "All-Glorious". General conceptions main article: Conceptions of God There is no clear consensus on the nature or even the existence of God. 27 The Abrahamic conceptions of God include the monotheistic definition of God in Judaism, the trinitarian view of Christians, and the Islamic concept of God.
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17 The germanic words for God were originally neuter —applying to both genders—but during the process of the Christianization of the germanic peoples from their indigenous Germanic paganism, the words became a masculine syntactic form. 18 In the English language, capitalization is used for names by which a god is known, including 'god'. Consequently, the capitalized form of god is not used for multiple gods ( polytheism ) or when used to refer to the generic idea of a deity. 19 20 The English word God and business its counterparts in other languages are normally used for any and all conceptions and, in spite of significant differences between religions, the term remains an English translation common to all. The same holds for Hebrew El, but in Judaism, god is also given a proper name, the tetragrammaton yhwh, in origin possibly the name of an Edomite or Midianite deity, yahweh. In many translations of the bible, when the word lord is in all capitals, it signifies that the word represents the tetragrammaton. 21 Allāh ( Arabic : ) is the Arabic term with no plural used by muslims and Arabic speaking Christians and Jews meaning "The god" (with a capital g while " ilāh " ( Arabic : ) is the term used for a deity. God may also be given a proper name in monotheistic currents of Hinduism which emphasize the personal nature of God, with early references to his name as Krishna - vasudeva in Bhagavata or later Vishnu and Hari.
In Judaism, it is common to refer to god by the titular names Elohim or Adonai. In Islam, the name Allah is used, while muslims also have a multitude of titular names for God. In Hinduism, brahman is often considered a monistic concept of God. 12 In Chinese religion, god ( Shangdi ) is conceived as the progenitor (first ancestor) of the universe, intrinsic to it and constantly ordaining. Other religions have names for God, for instance, baha in the bahá'í faith, 13 Waheguru in sikhism, 14 and Ahura mazda in Zoroastrianism. 15 Contents Etymology and usage The mesha Stele bears the earliest known reference (840 BCE) to the Israelite god Yahweh. Main article: God (word) The earliest written form of the germanic word God (always, in this usage, capitalized 16 ) comes hairdressing from the 6th-century Christian Codex Argenteus. The English word itself is derived from the Proto-germanic * uđan. The reconstructed Proto-Indo-european form * ǵhu-tó-m was likely based on the root * ǵhau(ə)-, which meant either "to call" or "to invoke".
while god is deemed unknown or unknowable within the context of agnosticism. God has also been conceived as the source of all moral obligation, and the "greatest conceivable existent". 3 Many notable philosophers have developed arguments for and against the existence of God. 7 The many different conceptions of God, and competing claims as to god's characteristics, aims, and actions, have led to the development of ideas of omnitheism, pandeism, 8 or a perennial philosophy, which postulates that there is one underlying theological truth, of which all religions. In the ancient Egyptian era of Atenism, possibly the earliest recorded monotheistic religion, this deity was called Aten, 10 premised on being the one "true" Supreme being and creator of the universe. 11 In the hebrew Bible and Judaism, "he who Is " i am that i am and the tetragrammaton yhwh ( Hebrew :, traditionally interpreted as "I am who i am "he who Exists are used as names of God, while yahweh and Jehovah are. In the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, god, consubstantial in three persons, is called the father, the son, and the holy Spirit.
1 2, in monotheistic thought, god is conceived of as the, supreme being and the principal object of faith. The concept of God, as described by legs theologians, commonly includes the attributes of omniscience (all-knowing omnipotence (unlimited power omnipresence (present everywhere and as having an eternal and necessary existence. Depending on ones kind of theism, these attributes are used either in way of analogy, or in a literal sense as distinct properties of the god. God is most often held to be incorporeal (immaterial). 3 4 5 Some religions describe god without reference to gender, while others use masculine terminology, using such terms as "Him" or "Father and some religions (such as Judaism ) attribute only a purely grammatical "gender" to god. 6 Incorporeity and corporeity of God are related to conceptions of transcendence (being outside nature) and immanence (being in nature, in the world) of God, with positions of synthesis such as the " immanent transcendence ". God has been conceived as either personal or impersonal.
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This article is about the concept of a supreme "God" in the context of monotheism. For jainism, see, arihant (Jainism). For the general concept of a being superior to humans that is worshiped as "a god see. For God in specific religions, see. For other uses of the term, see. A, christian representation of God. Although usually thought of as intangible, and thus with reviews no physical or visual form, many religions use images to represent their god in icons for art or worship. The monad, an ancient symbol for the metaphysical. Early science, particularly geometry and astrology and astronomy, was connected to the divine for most medieval scholars, and many believed that there was something intrinsically "divine" or "perfect" that could be found in circles.