This has led to the field of behavioral finance, which has produced deviations from expected utility theory to account for the empirical facts. Conservatism in updating beliefs edit It is well established that humans find logic hard, mathematics harder, and probability even more challenging citation needed. Psychologists have discovered systematic violations of probability calculations and behavior by humans. Citation needed consider, for example, the monty hall problem. In updating probability distributions using evidence, a standard method uses conditional probability, namely the rule of bayes. An experiment on belief revision has suggested that humans change their beliefs faster when using bayesian methods than when using informal judgment.

## In, the, theory, of, risk, bearing, free

In empirical applications, a number of violations have been shown to essay be systematic and these falsifications have deepened understanding of how people actually decide. For example, in 2000 behavioral economist Matthew Rabin argued that mathematically the utility of wealth cannot explain loss aversion and attempts to so use it will fail. Bernoulli's theory on the utility of wealth assumed that if two people have the same wealth all other things being equal the people should be equally happy. However, where two people have us1m but one has just prior to that had US2m but lost US1m whereas the other had US500k and had just gained US500k they will not be equally happy. Bernoulli's theory thus lacked a reference point. Nevertheless, it remained a dominant theory for over 250 years. Daniel Kahneman and Amos tversky in 1979 presented their prospect theory which showed empirically, among other things, how preferences of individuals are inconsistent among the same choices, depending on how those choices are presented. 11 like any mathematical model, expected utility theory is an abstraction and simplification of reality. The mathematical correctness of expected utility theory and the salience of its primitive concepts do not guarantee that expected utility theory is a reliable guide to human behavior or optimal practice. The mathematical clarity of expected utility theory has helped scientists design experiments to test its adequacy, and to distinguish systematic departures from its predictions.

Bell proposed a measure of risk which follows naturally from a certain class of von neumann-Morgenstern utility functions. 10 Let utility of wealth be given by u(w)wbeawdisplaystyle u(w)w-be-aw for individual-specific positive parameters a and. Then expected utility is given by wealthbeaExpected wealthRisk. Displaystyle beginalignedoperatorname e u(w) operatorname e w-boperatorname e e-aw operatorname e w-boperatorname e e-aoperatorname e w-a(w-operatorname e w) operatorname e w-be-aoperatorname e woperatorname e e-a(w-operatorname e w) textExpected wealth-bcdot e-acdot textExpected wealthcdot textRisk. Endaligned Thus the risk measure is E(ea(wEw)displaystyle operatorname e (e-a(w-operatorname e w), which differs between two individuals if they have different values of the parameter adisplaystyle a, allowing different people to essay disagree about the degree of risk associated with any given portfolio. See also Entropic risk measure. For general utility functions, however, expected utility analysis does not permit the expression of preferences to be separated into two parameters with one representing the expected value of the variable in question and the other representing its risk. Criticism edit Expected utility theory is a theory about how to make optimal decisions under risk. It has a normative interpretation which economists particularly used to think applies in all situations to rational agents but now tend to regard as a useful and insightful first order approximation.

The class of constant relative risk aversion utility functions contains three categories. Bernoulli's utility function u(w)log(w)displaystyle u(w)log(w) has relative risk aversion equal to unity. The functions u(w)wαdisplaystyle u(w)walpha for α(0,1)displaystyle alpha in (0,1) have relative risk aversion equal to 1αdisplaystyle 1-alpha. And the functions u(w)wαdisplaystyle u(w)-walpha for α 0displaystyle alpha 0 also have relative risk aversion equal to 1αdisplaystyle 1-alpha. See also the discussion of utility functions having hyperbolic absolute risk aversion (hara). Measuring risk in the expected utility context edit Often people refer to "risk" in the sense of a potentially quantifiable entity. In the context of mean-variance analysis, variance is used as a risk measure for portfolio return; however, this is only valid if returns are normally distributed or otherwise jointly elliptically distributed, 7 8 9 friend or in the unlikely case in which the utility function has.

In the absence of uncertainty about the threshold, expected utility maximization simplifies to maximizing the probability of achieving some fixed target. If the uncertainty is uniformly distributed, then expected utility maximization becomes expected value maximization. Intermediate cases lead to increasing risk-aversion above some fixed threshold and increasing risk-seeking below a fixed threshold. Examples of von neumann-Morgenstern utility functions edit The utility function u(w)log(w)displaystyle u(w)log(w) was originally suggested by bernoulli (see above). It has relative risk aversion constant and equal to one, and is still sometimes assumed in economic analyses. The utility function u(w)eawdisplaystyle u(w)-e-aw exhibits constant absolute risk aversion, and for this reason is often avoided, although it has the advantage of offering substantial mathematical tractability when asset returns are normally distributed. Note that, as per the affine transformation property alluded to above, the utility function keawdisplaystyle k-e-aw gives exactly the same preferences orderings as does eawdisplaystyle -e-aw ; thus it is irrelevant that the values of eawdisplaystyle -e-aw and its expected value are always negative: what.

### Essays in the, theory of, risk, bearing

The von neumannMorgenstern formulation is important in the application of set theory to economics because it was developed shortly after the hicksAllen " ordinal revolution" of the 1930s, and writing it revived the idea of cardinal utility in economic theory. Citation needed however, while in this context the utility function is cardinal, in that implied behavior would be altered by a non-linear monotonic transformation of utility, the expected utility function is ordinal because any monotonic increasing transformation of it gives the same behavior. Risk aversion edit further information: Risk aversion The expected utility theory takes into account that individuals may be risk-averse, meaning that the individual would refuse a fair gamble (a fair gamble has an expected value of zero). Risk aversion implies that their utility functions are concave and show diminishing marginal wealth utility. The risk attitude is directly related to the curvature of the utility function: risk neutral individuals have linear utility functions, while risk seeking individuals have convex utility functions and risk averse individuals have concave utility functions. The degree of risk aversion can be measured by the curvature of the utility function.

Since the risk attitudes are unchanged under affine transformations of u, the second derivative u is not an adequate measure of the risk aversion of a utility function. Instead, it needs to be normalized. This leads to the definition of the ArrowPratt 5 6 measure of absolute risk aversion: ara(w)u(w)u(w)displaystyle mathit ara(w)-frac u w)u w) The ArrowPratt measure of relative risk aversion is: rra(w)wu(w)u(w)displaystyle mathit rra(w)-frac wu w)u w) Special classes of utility functions are the crra ( constant. They are often used in economics for simplification. A decision that maximizes expected utility also maximizes the probability of the decision's consequences being preferable to some uncertain threshold (Castagnoli and licalzi,1996; Bordley and licalzi,2000;Bordley and Kirkwood, ).

The independence axiom is the most controversial axiom. Axiom (Independence of irrelevant alternatives let a, b, and C be three lotteries with ABdisplaystyle Asucceq b, and let tdisplaystyle t be the probability that a third choice is present: t0,1displaystyle tin 0,1 ; if tA(1t)CtB(1t)C,displaystyle tA(1-t)Csucceq tB(1-t)C, then the third choice, c, is irrelevant. Continuity assumes that when there are three lotteries (a, b and C) and the individual prefers A to b and B to c, then there should be a possible combination of a and c in which the individual is then indifferent between this mix and. Axiom (Continuity let a, b and C be lotteries with abcdisplaystyle Asucceq Bsucceq C ; then there exists a probability p such that b is equally good as pA(1p)Cdisplaystyle pA(1-p)C. If all these axioms are satisfied, then the individual is said to be rational and the preferences can be represented by a utility function,. One can assign numbers (utilities) to each outcome of the lottery such that choosing the best lottery according to the preference displaystyle succeq amounts to choosing the lottery with the highest expected utility.

This result is called the von neumannMorgenstern utility representation theorem. In other words, if an individual's behavior always satisfies the above axioms, then there is a utility function such that the individual will choose one gamble over another if and only if the expected utility of one exceeds that of the other. The expected utility of any gamble may be expressed as a linear combination of the utilities of the outcomes, with the weights being the respective probabilities. Utility functions are also normally continuous functions. Such utility functions are also referred to as von neumannMorgenstern (vNM) utility functions. This is a central theme of the expected utility hypothesis in which an individual chooses not the highest expected value, but rather the highest expected utility. The expected utility maximizing individual makes decisions rationally based on the axioms of the theory.

### Essays in the Theory of Risk - bearing

They are completeness, transitivity, independence and continuity. 4 Completeness assumes that an individual has well defined preferences and can always decide between any two alternatives. Axiom (Completeness for every a gps and b either ABdisplaystyle Asucceq b or ABdisplaystyle Apreceq. This means that the individual either prefers A to b, or is indifferent between a and b, or prefers B. Transitivity assumes that, as an individual decides according to the completeness axiom, the individual also decides consistently. Axiom (Transitivity for every a, b and C with ABdisplaystyle Asucceq b and BCdisplaystyle Bsucceq C we must have acdisplaystyle Asucceq. Independence of irrelevant alternatives pertains to well-defined preferences as well. It assumes that two gambles mixed with an irrelevant third one will maintain the same order of preference plan as when the two are presented independently of the third one.

an already-wealthy person than it would be to a poor person. Petersburg paradox edit main article:. Petersburg paradox The. Petersburg paradox (named after the journal in which Bernoulli's paper was published) arises when there is no upper bound on the potential rewards from very low probability events. Because some probability distribution functions have an infinite expected value, an expected-wealth maximizing person would pay an arbitrarily large finite amount to take this gamble. In real life, people do not do this. Bernoulli proposed a solution to this paradox in his paper: the utility function used in real life means that the expected utility of the gamble is finite, even if its expected value is infinite. (Thus he hypothesized diminishing marginal utility of increasingly larger amounts of money.) It has also been resolved differently by other economists by proposing that very low probability events are neglected, by taking into account the finite resources of the participants, or by noting that one. Von neumannMorgenstern formulation edit main article: Von neumannMorgenstern utility theorem The von neumannMorgenstern axioms edit There are four axioms of the expected utility theory that define a rational decision maker.

Bernoulli's formulation edit, nicolas Bernoulli described the,. Petersburg paradox (involving infinite expected values) in 1713, prompting two Swiss mathematicians to develop expected utility theory as a solution. The theory can also more accurately describe more realistic scenarios (where expected values are finite) than expected value alone. In 1728, gabriel Cramer, in a letter to nicolas Bernoulli, wrote, "the mathematicians estimate money in proportion to its quantity, and men of good sense in proportion to the usage that they may make.". In 1738, nicolas' cousin, daniel Bernoulli, published the canonical 18th Century description of this solution. Specimen theoriae novae de mensura sortis or, exposition of a new Theory on the measurement of Risk. 3, daniel Bernoulli proposed that a mathematical function of probability should be used to correct the expected value, accounting for risk aversion, where the risk premium is higher literature for low-probability events than the difference between the payout level of a particular outcome and its expected.

### Anarchy, state and utopia

In economics, game theory, and decision theory the expected utility hypothesis, concerning people's preferences with regard to choices that have uncertain outcomes (gambles states that if specific axioms are satisfied, the subjective value associated with an individual's gamble is the statistical expectation of that individual's. Daniel Bernoulli in 1738, this hypothesis has proven useful to explain some popular choices that seem to contradict the expected value criterion (which takes into account only the sizes of the payouts and the probabilities of occurrence such as occur in the contexts of gambling. Until the mid-twentieth century, the standard term for the expected utility was the moral expectation, contrasted with "mathematical expectation" for the expected value. 1, the von neumannMorgenstern utility theorem provides necessary and sufficient conditions under which the expected utility hypothesis holds. From relatively early on, it was accepted that some of these conditions would be violated by real decision-makers in practice but that the conditions could be interpreted nonetheless as 'axioms' of rational choice. Contents, expected value and choice under risk edit, in the presence of risky outcomes, a human decision maker does not always choose the option with higher expected value investments. For example, suppose there is a choice between a guaranteed payment of 1, and a gamble in which the probability of getting legs a 100 payment is 1 in 80 and the alternative, far more likely outcome is getting nothing (the expected value is then.25.

And Other biographical Essays. Regius Professor of Medicine, oxford; Honorary Professor of Medicine. Join the conversation at crntalk! Essays - 2005 four stages of acceptance: 1) this is worthless nonsense; 2) this is an interesting, but perverse, point of view; 3) this is true, but quite unimportant; 4) i always said. Ellen Lupton is curator of contemporary design at cooper-Hewitt, national Design Museum in New York city and director of the Graphic Design mfa program at Maryland Institute college of Art (mica) in Baltimore.

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In economics and finance, risk aversion is the behavior of humans (especially consumers and investors when exposed to uncertainty, in attempting to lower that uncertainty. It is the hesitation of a person to agree to a situation with an unknown payoff rather than another situation with a more predictable payoff but possibly lower. In economics, game theory, and decision theory the expected utility hypothesis, concerning people's preferences with regard to choices that have uncertain outcomes (gambles states that if specific axioms are satisfied, the subjective value associated with an individual's gamble is the statistical expectation of that individual's. Understanding evolution: History, theory, evidence, and Implications. By - march 5, 2006 Updated - may 2, 2006. Introduction; Origin Mythology; Mesopotamian and Mediterranean Origin Belief.