The declaration of Christianity as an accepted religion in the roman Empire drove an expansion of the provision of care. Following the first council of Nicaea. 325 construction of a hospital in every cathedral town was begun. Among the earliest were those built by the physician saint Sampson in Constantinople and by basil, bishop of caesarea in modern-day turkey. Called the "Basilias the latter resembled a city and included housing for doctors and nurses and separate buildings for various classes of patients. 19 There was a separate section for lepers. 20 Some hospitals maintained libraries and training programmes, and doctors compiled their medical and pharmacological studies in manuscripts. Thus in-patient medical care in the sense of what we today consider a hospital, was an invention driven by Christian mercy and byzantine innovation.
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D., king Pandukabhaya of Sri lanka (reigned home 437. C.) had lying-in-homes and hospitals (sivikasotthi-sala) built in various parts of the country. This is the earliest documentary evidence we have of institutions specifically dedicated to belief the care of the sick anywhere in the world. 14 15 Mihintale hospital is the oldest in the world. 16 ruins of ancient hospitals in Sri lanka are still in existence in Mihintale, anuradhapura, and Medirigiriya. 17 The romans constructed buildings called valetudinaria for the care of sick slaves, gladiators, and soldiers around 100. C., and many were identified by later archaeology. While their existence is considered proven, there is some doubt as to whether they were as widespread as was once thought, as many were identified only according to the layout of building remains, and not by means of surviving records or finds of medical tools. 18 Late roman Empire and Sassanid Persia edit further information: byzantine medicine and Ancient Iranian medicine a physician taking the pulse of a patient. From a 17th-century copy of avicenna's Canon of Medicine.
All the poor and destitute in the country, orphans, widowers, and childless men, maimed people and cripples, and all who are diseased, go to those houses, and are provided with every kind of help, and doctors examine their diseases. They get the food and medicines which their cases require, and are made to feel at ease; and when they are better, they go away of themselves. 12 The earliest surviving encyclopaedia of medicine in Sanskrit is the Charakasamhita (Compendium of Charaka ). This text, which describes the building of a hospital is dated by dominik wujastyk of the University college london from the period between 100. 13 According. Wujastyk, the description by fa xian is one of the earliest accounts of a civic hospital system anywhere in the world and, remote coupled with Caraka's description of how a clinic should be equipped, suggests that India may have been the first part of the world. 13 According to the mahavamsa, the ancient chronicle of Sinhalese royalty, written in the sixth century.
The earliest documented institutions aiming to provide cures were ancient Egyptian temples. In ancient Greece, temples dedicated to the healer-god Asclepius, known as Asclepieia functioned as centres of medical advice, prognosis, and healing. 9 Asclepeia provided carefully controlled spaces conducive to healing and fulfilled several of the requirements of institutions created for healing. 10 Under his Roman name Æsculapius, he was provided with a temple (291. C.) on an island in the tiber in Rome, where similar rites were performed. 11 Institutions created specifically to care for the ill also appeared early in India. Fa xian, a chinese buddhist monk who travelled across India. 400, recorded in his travelogue that: The heads of the vaisya merchant families in them all the kingdoms of north India establish in the cities houses for dispensing charity and medicine.
Nursing permeates every part of a hospital. Many units or wards have both a nursing and a medical director that serve as administrators for their respective disciplines within that specialty. For example, in an intensive care nursery, the director of neonatology is responsible for the medical staff and medical care while the nursing manager/director for the intensive care nursery is responsible for all of the nurses and nursing care in that unit/ward. Some hospitals have outpatient departments and some have chronic treatment units such as behavioral health services, dentistry, dermatology, psychiatric ward, rehabilitation services, and physical therapy. Common support units include a dispensary or pharmacy, pathology, and radiology. On the non-medical side, there often are medical records departments, release of information departments, information management (a.k.a. Im, it or is clinical engineering (a.k.a. Biomed facilities management, plant ops (operations, also known as maintenance dining services, and security departments. History edit main article: History of hospitals see also: Timeline of hospitals Early examples edit view of the Askleipion of Kos, the best preserved instance of an Asklepieion.
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China, where government funding only constitutes 10 of income of hospitals. Chinese sources seem conflicted about the for-profit/non-profit ratio of hospitals in China) Specialised hospitals can help reduce dubus health care costs compared to general hospitals. For example, narayana health 's Bangalore cardiac unit, which is specialised in cardiac surgery, allows for significantly greater number of patients. It has 3000 beds (more than 20 times the average American hospital) and in pediatric heart surgery alone, it performs 3000 heart operations annually, making it by far the largest such facility in the world. 8 2 Surgeons are paid on a fixed salary instead of per operation; thus, the costs to the hospital drops when the number of procedures increases, taking advantage of economies of scale. 8 Additionally, it is argued that costs go down as all its specialists become efficient by working on one "production line" procedure. 2 teaching edit a teaching hospital combines assistance to people with teaching to medical students and nurses and often is linked to a medical school, nursing school or university.
In some countries like uk exists the clinical attachment system that is defined as a period of time when a doctor is attached to a named supervisor in a clinical unit, with the broad aims of observing clinical practice in the uk and the role. Clinics edit main article: Clinic The medical facility smaller than a hospital is generally called a clinic, and often is run by a government agency for health services or a private partnership of physicians (in nations where private practise is allowed). Clinics generally provide only outpatient services. Departments or wards edit resuscitation room bed after a trauma intervention, showing the highly technical equipment of modern hospitals Hospitals consist of departments, traditionally called wards, especially when they have beds for inpatients, when they are sometimes also called inpatient wards. Hospitals may have acute services such as an emergency department or specialist trauma centre, burn unit, surgery, or urgent care. These may then be backed up by more specialist units such as the following: In addition, there is the department of nursing, often headed by a chief nursing officer or director of nursing. This department is responsible for the administration of professional nursing practice, research, and policy for the hospital.
6 Twenty-eight of California's rural hospitals and 20 of its critical-access hospitals are district hospitals. 7 They are formed by local municipalities, have boards that are individually elected by their local communities, and exist to serve local needs. 6 7 They are a particularly important provider of healthcare to uninsured patients and patients with Medi-cal (which is California's Medicaid program, serving low-income persons, some senior citizens, persons with disabilities, children in foster care, and pregnant women). 6 7 In 2012, district hospitals provided 54 million in uncompensated care in California. 7 Specialised edit types of specialised hospitals include rehabilitation hospitals, children's hospitals, seniors' ( geriatric ) hospitals, long-term acute care facilities and hospitals for dealing with specific medical needs such as psychiatric problems (see psychiatric hospital certain disease categories such as cardiac, oncology, or orthopedic.
In Germany specialised hospitals are called Fachkrankenhaus ; an example is Fachkrankenhaus Coswig (thoracic surgery). A hospital may be a single building or a number of buildings on a campus. Many hospitals with pre-twentieth-century origins began as one building and evolved into campuses. Some hospitals are affiliated with universities for medical research and the training of medical personnel such as physicians and nurses, often called teaching hospitals. Worldwide, most hospitals are run on a nonprofit basis by governments or charities. There are however a few exceptions,.
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Citation needed some patients go to a hospital just for diagnosis, treatment, or therapy and then leave outpatients without staying overnight; while others are "admitted" and stay overnight or for several days or weeks or months inpatients. Hospitals usually are distinguished from other types of father's medical facilities by their ability to admit and care for inpatients whilst the others, which are smaller, are often described as clinics. General/Acute-care edit The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital, also known as an acute-care hospital. These facilities handle many kinds of disease and injury, and normally have an emergency department (sometimes known as "accident emergency or trauma center to deal with immediate and urgent threats to health. Larger cities may have several hospitals shredder of varying sizes and facilities. Some hospitals, especially in the United States and Canada, have their own ambulance service. District edit a district hospital typically is the major health care facility in its region, with large numbers of beds for intensive care and critical care and long-term care. In California, "district hospital" refers specifically to a class of healthcare facility created shortly after World War ii to address a shortage of hospital beds in many local communities. 6 7 even today, district hospitals are the sole public hospitals in 19 of California's counties, 6 and are the sole locally-accessible hospital within 9 additional counties in which one or more other hospitals are present at substantial distance from a local community.
By metonymy the latin word then came to mean a guest-chamber, guest's lodging, an inn. 5 Hospes is thus the root for the English writing words host (where the p was dropped for convenience of pronunciation) hospitality, hospice, hostel and hotel. The latter modern word derives from Latin via the ancient French romance word hostel, which developed a silent s, which letter was eventually removed from the word, the loss of which is signified by a circumflex in the modern French word hôtel. The german word 'Spital' shares similar roots. The grammar of the word differs slightly depending on the dialect. In the United States, hospital usually requires an article; in the United Kingdom and elsewhere, the word normally is used without an article when it is the object of a preposition and when referring to a patient in/to the hospital". "in/to hospital in Canada, both uses are found.
hospitals. 4 In accordance with the original meaning of the word, hospitals were originally "places of hospitality and this meaning is still preserved in the names of some institutions such as the royal Hospital Chelsea, established in 1681 as a retirement and nursing home for veteran. Contents Etymology edit during peacetime, hospitals can be indicated by a variety of symbols. For example, a white 'h' on a blue background is often used in the United States. During times of armed conflict, a hospital may be marked with the emblem of the red cross, red crescent or red crystal in accordance with the geneva conventions. During the middle Ages, hospitals served different functions from modern institutions. Middle Ages hospitals were almshouses for the poor, hostels for pilgrims, or hospital schools. The word "hospital" comes from the latin hospes, signifying a stranger or foreigner, hence a guest. Another noun derived from this, hospitium came to signify hospitality, that is the relation between guest and shelterer, hospitality, friendliness, and hospitable reception.
Hospitals have a range of departments (e.g. Surgery and urgent care ) and specialist units such as cardiology. Some hospitals have outpatient departments and some have chronic treatment units. Common support units include a pharmacy, pathology, and radiology. Hospitals are usually funded by the public sector, health presentation organisations ( for profit or nonprofit health insurance companies, or charities, including direct charitable donations. Historically, hospitals were often founded and funded by religious orders, or by charitable individuals and leaders. 3 Currently, hospitals are largely staffed by professional physicians, surgeons, nurses, and allied health practitioners, whereas in the past, this work was usually performed by the members of founding religious orders or by volunteers.
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For other uses, see, hospital (disambiguation) and, general hospital (disambiguation). A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment. 1, the best-known type of hospital is the general hospital, which typically has an emergency department to treat urgent health problems ranging from fire and accident victims to a heart attack. A district hospital typically is the major health care facility in its region, with large numbers of beds for intensive care and additional beds for patients who need long-term care. Specialised hospitals include trauma centres, rehabilitation hospitals, children's hospitals, seniors' ( geriatric ) hospitals, and hospitals for dealing with specific medical needs such as psychiatric treatment (see psychiatric hospital ) and certain disease categories. Specialised hospitals can help reduce health care costs compared thesis to general hospitals. A teaching hospital combines assistance to people with teaching to medical students and nurses. The medical facility smaller than a hospital is generally called a clinic.