With text-enabled cell phones, for example, text is now something you can do, not just something you can read; the noun "text" is now also a verb. Some linguists, including Donna jo napoli, suggest that a similar change is happening to adjectives and adverbs. Increasingly, napoli argues, adjectives are being used both for their original function (roughly, to modify nouns) and for a new function, to modify verbs. She gives the following examples to illustrate this point: Mary plays rough. rough" is an adjective modifying the verb "plays don't work so hard. hard" is an adjective modifying the verb "work 17 Comparing these examples with"s from Junie.
Random house junie
Most likely, no one has explicitly taught her any of the above rules. She, like most young children, has derived them entirely on her own. This process, not her lack of memorized exceptions to rules, can be seen as what is truly amazing about Junie. Language is Constantly Changing like the idea that language follows rules, the idea that language is ever-changing makes intuitive sense. Anyone who has struggled through the early modern English of Shakespeare or the middle English of Chaucer (or the virtually incomprehensible Old English of beowulf) can see that these versions of English are very different from the version report spoken today. One part of language that changes over time is the acceptable forms of words. Often, a regular form that follows a rule (like the "add -ed" rule) will replace an irregular one that does not. For example, "climbed" is currently the standard past-tense form of the verb "climb junie. Uses this form correctly many times: "I climbed onto my bed." "I climbed up on his lap."14 However, in early modern English, the standard form was the currently-defunct "clomb as seen in the following" from John Milton's seventeenth century work paradise lost.15 so clomb. Another aspect of language change involves using existing words in new ways.
And if a vegetable has a name, wouldn't "Sue" be a logical choice? As was the case above, junie. Is not the only English speaker to draw such conclusions. Many adults use the mondegreen "notor republic" (for "notary public and Pinker"s a child happily singing, "The ants are my friends, they're blowing in the wind instead of "The answer, my friend, is blowing in the wind" from Bob Dylan's well-known song "Blowin'. A thoughtful challenger, however, could reply that the key here is Junie.'s ignorance of the many rule exceptions present in standard English. Interestingly, much of what appear to modern English speakers as "exceptions" are actually living fossils of long-forgotten rules. For example, old English and its predecessors had a rule that made a verb past tense by changing its vowel; echoes of this rule still exist in words like "sing which becomes "sang" in the past tense.13 However, junie.'s about strict rule-following can also.
Misunderstanding her grandmother's idiom "Your new brother is the cutest little monkey junie. Mistakenly thinks that her new brother really is a monkey; if he wasn't, why would Grandma say that he was? Later, junie.'s class talks about idioms and comes up with others, like "couch potato" (which, as her friend Lucille points out, isn't a real potato).10. Another example of this rule involves a different kind of misunderstanding. Encounters an unusual phrase, she interprets it in a way that makes the most amount of sense. (Remember that fast, fluent speech can make hearing individual sounds difficult.) This desire for sense results in the following phrases from Junie.: Mother "had a mybrain headache" (migraine) "I got fusstration inside me" (frustration) "The kind of vegetable named sue keeny" (zucchini)11 Phrases like. Mondegreens result when listeners attempt to make sense of an unusual utterance and turn it into something that makes sense. Since mother's problem is with her head, surely "mybrain" is the right choice of all the possibly heard options; when someone (particularly junie.) is "fusstrated they tend to get fussy.
Resumes guaranteed review - big List of, resume, writers
This next rule is less of federalist a rule than a pattern: The first syllable of words is the stressed syllable. Although this pattern is not true of all English words, it tends to be true of words that young children hear most often, and is true of many words that Junie. Says (emphasis added "i hurried to the laundry room to get the clothespins" "JELly doughnuts. With rainbow sprinkles" "My new BAby brother NAmed OLlie"8. Junie.'s application of this pattern is slightly more complicated than her use of the rules above. If the first syllable of a word is stressed, then maybe the stressed syllable is the first syllable of a word.
Says: "Mother 'rolled me in afternoon kindergarten" (enrolled) "Baby-sitter 'structions is all the stuff I'm not allowed to do" (instructions) "That's 'zactly what kind of day i had" (exactly)9. This is not as odd as it first seems; when adults talk quickly, initial unstressed syllables can be hard to hear. For example, this author recently fielded a request from a child for books about "noles" (the child meant "anoles a type of lizard often kept as class pets). Finally, this last rule seems obvious, but has many interesting consequences: people say things that make sense. One common example of this rule—literal speech versus idioms—is explicitly discussed in the junie.
For example, one of Junie.'s most often-cited mistakes deals with the following past-tense rule: to make a verb past tense, add -ed to the end. Examples: walk ed walked; jump ed jumped. Says: "I runned straight to the sink" (run ed runned) "She beated me at a race" (beat ed beated) "I hided under my backpack" (hide ed hided)4. Although all of the above are examples of logical rule-following, the second, "beated is the most interesting. In addition to being logical, this form is actually clearer than its counterpart in standard English. As linguist Steven Pinker points out, verbs like "beat which have the same form in both present and past tense, are ambiguous; whether they're being used to mean present or past actions can be unclear.5 Speech like junie.'s, which uses a different form.
Here is another common English rule: to form the comparative and superlative forms of adjectives, add -er and -est to them. Examples: big er bigger; fast est fastest. Says: "She is way beautifuller than me" (beautiful er beautifuller) "Painting is the funnest thing I love" (fun est funnest) "They are the gorgeousest pictures i ever saw!" (gorgeous est gorgeousest)6. Here is another rule on pronouns: to form a reflexive pronoun, add -self or -selves to the possessive form of that pronoun. Examples: my (possessive) self myself; your (possessive) self yourself; our (possessive) selves ourselves. Says: "Big girls get to walk all by theirselves" "Sometimes ladies have to go under the table and adjust theirselves" (their (possessive) selves theirselves)7. As in the previous case, junie.'s language use follows the preceding two rules exactly.
Free printable, dear, santa, letter (3 Different Versions)
Finally, this article does not address Junie.'s name-calling and expression of negative emotions (i.e. "I hate that meanie jim the other frequent complaint about these books.3. Language follows Rules, the idea that language follows rules should not come as a surprise; in fact, this is a major assumption behind complaints that Junie. Is breaking such rules. But thinking like a linguist leads to the surprising conclusion that Junie. Isn't breaking any rules at all—she's actually following them completely, unlike most speakers of standard English. Looking at matters this way, paper junie.'s speech can be seen as clearer and more logical than the standard speech to which it is compared.shredder
Linguistics can help readers appreciate junie., and Junie. Can inspire readers to learn more about linguistics. Before beginning this discussion, a few qualifications are in order. First, this paper reflects a particular approach to linguistics called generative grammar, a theory that assumes language is a systematic, innate human trait driven by certain mathematical principles (specifically, language is a combinatorial, productive, and recursive system).2 Second, most rules and other properties mentioned here. In particular, linguists see important differences between spoken and written language; because these books read as though Junie. Is telling a story, this article treats Junie.'s written narration as if it were made up of biografia spoken words. Additionally, because junie.'s grammar becomes more standard when she enters first grade in later books, this discussion focuses on the seventeen books in which Junie.
sixth on the American Library Association's list of the ten most frequently challenged authors of 2004.1 Many complaints, like the ones"d above, focus on Junie.'s use of non-standard English. But knee-jerk objection is only one way of viewing the unusual grammar and vocabulary that characterize this series. Applying the principles of linguistics—the scientific study of language—to the junie. Jones series can shed a more interesting, more sophisticated, and ultimately more positive light on these books. From a linguistic point of view, junie.'s unique way of speaking illustrates four properties of language: Language follows rules, language is constantly changing, language is learned at special times and in special ways. Language is a reflection of social power.
Originally published in Children and Libraries: The journal of the Association for Library service to Children. Bio: Jill Ratzan holds a bachelor's degree in linguistics and a master's degree in library and information science. Visit her on the web. "you are not the boss of my words, Grace i said. "This is a freed country. And if I want to say valentime, thesis i can. And I will not even go to jail." —from Barbara park's Junie. Jones and the mushy gushy valentime "Not the way i want my kids talking!" writes one reviewer on the online bookstore. "Children learn by example and will pick up on the good and bad habits that they see and hear, so why would anyone want his/her child exposed to this constant stream of sloppy language?" asks another.
Vba write to text file new line Excel
Abstract: Although sometimes dismissed as an example of "bad grammar the junie. Jones series by barbara park can also be seen as exemplifying four principles of linguistics: language follows rules, language is constantly changing, language is learned at special times and in special ways, and language is a reflection of social power. Viewing these books from the point of view of linguistics grants readers a more sophisticated, more interesting, with and more positive perspective on this series. Original citation: Ratzan, jill. You are not the boss of my words: Junie. Jones, language, and Linguistics. Children and Libraries 3(3 31-38.