1920 writing desk

1920 writing desk

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38 While monastic library scriptoriums flourished throughout the east and West, the rules governing them were generally the same. 39 Barren and sun-lit rooms (because candles were a source of fire) were major features of the scriptorium that was both a model of production and monastic piety. 40 Monks scribbled away for hours a day, interrupted only by meals and prayers. 41 With such production, medieval monasteries began to accumulate large libraries. These libraries were devoted solely to the education of the monks and were seen as essential to their spiritual development. 42 Although most of these texts that were produced were Christian in nature, many monastic leaders saw common virtues in the Greek classics. As a result, many of these Greek works were copied, and thus saved, in monastic scriptoriums. 43 When Europe passed into the dark Ages, byzantine scriptoriums laboriously preserved Greco-roman classics.

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32 As the west crumbled, books and libraries flourished and flowed east toward the byzantine Empire. 33 There, four different types of libraries were established: imperial, patriarchal, monastic, and private. 34 Each had its own purpose and, as a result, their survival varied. Christianity was a new force in Europe and many of the faithful saw Hellenistic culture as pagan. As such, many classical Greek works, written on scrolls, were left to decay as only Christian texts were thought fit for preservation in a codex, the progenitor of the modern book. 35 In the east, however, this was not the case as many of these classical Greek and Roman texts were copied. 36 "Formerly paper was rare and expensive, so every spare page of available books was pressed into use. Thus a seventeenth-century edition of the Ignatian epistles, in Mar Saba, had copied onto its last pages, probably in the early eighteenth century, a passage allegedly from the letters of Clement of Alexandria". 37 Old manuscripts were also used to bind new books because of the costs associated with paper and also because of the scarcity of new paper. In byzantium, much of this work devoted to preserving Hellenistic thought in codex form was performed in scriptoriums by monks.

One of the most popular was ovid, mentioned by approximately twenty French catalogues and nearly thirty german ones. 27 Surprisingly, old Roman textbooks on grammar were still being used at that time. Han Chinese scholar liu xiang established the first library classification system during the han dynasty, 28 and the first book notation system. At this time, the library catalogue was written on scrolls of fine silk and stored in silk bags. Late Antiquity edit during the late Antiquity and Middle Ages periods, there was no rome of the kind that ruled the mediterranean for centuries and spawned the culture that produced twenty-eight public libraries in the urbs Roma. 30 The empire had been divided then later re-united again under Constantine the Great who moved the capital of the roman Empire in 330 ad to the city of byzantium which was renamed yardage Constantinople. 31 The roman intellectual culture that flourished in ancient times was undergoing a transformation as the academic world moved from laymen to Christian clergy.

1920 writing desk

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In all recorded cases, the books were kept in a relatively small room where the staff went to get them for the readers, who had to consult them in an adjoining hall or covered walkway. Most of the works in catalogs were of a religious nature, such as volumes of the bible or religious service books. "In a number of cases the library was entirely pdf theological and liturgical, and in the greater part of the libraries father's the non-ecclesiastical content did not reach one third of the total" 27 In addition to these types of works, in some libraries during that time. In the early middle Ages, Aristotle was more popular. Additionally, there was quite a bit of censoring within libraries of the time; many works that were "scientific and metaphysical" were not included in the majority of libraries during that time period. 27 Latin authors were better represented within library holdings and Roman works were less represented. Cicero was also an especially popular author along with the histories of Sallust. 27 Additionally, virgil was universally represented at most of the medieval libraries of the time.

25 The structure was approximately fifty feet high with the peak of the roof reaching almost seventy feet. 26 Unlike the Greek libraries, readers had direct access to the scrolls, which were kept on shelves built into the walls of a large room. Reading or copying was normally done in the room itself. The surviving records give only a few instances of lending features. Most of the large roman baths were also cultural centres, built from the start with a library, a two-room arrangement with one room for Greek and one for Latin texts. Libraries were filled with parchment scrolls as at Library of Pergamum and on papyrus scrolls as at Alexandria : the export of prepared writing materials was a staple of commerce. There were a few institutional or royal libraries which were open to an educated public (such as the serapeum collection of the library of Alexandria, once the largest library in the ancient world 16 but on the whole collections were private. In those rare cases where it was possible for a scholar to consult library books, there seems to have been no direct access to the stacks.

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1920 writing desk

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20 Pollioss library, the Anla libertatis, 21 which was housed in the Atrium Libertatis, was centrally located near the forum Romanum. It was the first to employ an architectural design that separated works into Greek and Latin. All subsequent Roman public libraries will have this design. 22 At the conclusion of explanatory Rome's civil wars following the death of Marcus Antonius in 30 bc, the Emperor Augustus sought to reconstruct many of Rome's damaged buildings. During this construction, augustus created two more public libraries. The first was the library of the temple of Apollo on the palatine, often called the palatine library, and the second was the library of the porticus of Octaviae. 23 Two more libraries were added by the Emperor Tiberius on Palatine hill and one by vespasian after.

Vespasian's library was constructed in the forum of Vespasian, also known as the forum of peace, and became one of Rome's principal libraries. The bibliotheca pacis was built along the traditional model and had two large halls with rooms for Greek and Latin libraries containing the works of Galen and Lucius Aelius. 24 One of the best preserved was the ancient Ulpian Library built by the Emperor Trajan. Completed essay in 112/113, the Ulpian Library was part of Trajan's Forum built on the capitoline hill. Trajan's Column separated the Greek and Latin rooms which faced each other.

The cultivated Hellenized diners in deipnosophistae pass over the libraries of Rome in silence. By the time of Augustus, there were public libraries near the forums of Rome. There were libraries in the porticus Octaviae near the Theatre of Marcellus, in the temple of Apollo palatinus, and in the bibliotheca Ulpiana in the forum of Trajan. The state archives were kept in a structure on the slope between the roman Forum and the capitoline hill. Private libraries appeared during the late republic: Seneca inveighed against libraries fitted out for show by illiterate owners who scarcely read their titles in the course of a lifetime, but displayed the scrolls in bookcases ( armaria ) of citrus wood inlaid with ivory that.


19 Libraries were amenities suited to a villa, such as Cicero's at Tusculum, maecenas 's several villas, or Pliny the younger's, all described in surviving letters. At the villa of the papyri at Herculaneum, apparently the villa of caesar's father-in-law, the Greek library has been partly preserved in volcanic ash; archaeologists speculate that a latin library, kept separate from the Greek one, may await discovery at the site. In the west, the first public libraries were established under the roman Empire as each succeeding emperor strove to open one or many which outshone that of his predecessor. Rome's first public library was established by Asinius Pollio. Pollio was a lieutenant of Julius caesar and one of his most ardent supporters. After his military victory in Illyria, pollio felt he had enough fame and fortune to create what Julius caesar had sought for a long time: a public library to increase the prestige of Rome and rival the one in Alexandria.

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15 It flourished under the patronage of the Ptolemaic dynasty and functioned as a major center of scholarship from its construction in the 3rd century bc until the roman conquest of Egypt in. The library was conceived and opened either during the reign of Ptolemy i soter (323283 BC) revelation or during the reign of his son Ptolemy II (283246 BC). 16 An early organization system was in effect at Alexandria. 16 The library of Celsus in Ephesus, anatolia, now part of Selçuk, turkey was built in honor of the roman Senator Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus 17 18 (completed in 135) by celsus' son, gaius Julius Aquila ( consul, 110 AD). The library was built to store 12,000 scrolls and to serve as a monumental tomb for Celsus. Private or personal libraries made up of written books (as friend opposed to the state or institutional records kept in archives) appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century. The celebrated book collectors of Hellenistic Antiquity were listed in the late 2nd century in deipnosophistae. All these libraries were Greek.

1920 writing desk

Among the findings were the the Enuma Elish, also known as the Epic of Creation, 10 which depicts a traditional Babylonian view of creation; the Epic of Gilgamesh ; 11 a large selection of "omen texts" including Enuma Anu Enlil which "contained omens dealing with the. The tablets were stored in a variety of containers such as wooden boxes, woven baskets of reeds, or clay shelves. The "libraries" were cataloged using colophons, which are a publisher's imprint on the spine of a book, or in this case a tablet. The colophons stated the series name, the title of the tablet, and any extra information the scribe needed to indicate. Eventually, the clay tablets were organized by subject and size. Unfortunately, due to limited to bookshelf space, once more tablets were added to the library, older ones were removed, which is why some tablets are missing from the excavated cities in Mesopotamia. 13 According to legend, mythical philosopher laozi was keeper of books in the earliest library in China, which belonged to the Imperial Zhou dynasty. 14 Also, evidence of catalogues found in some destroyed ancient libraries illustrates the presence of librarians. 14 Classical period edit Artistic rendering of the library of Alexandria, based on some archaeological evidence The library of Alexandria, in Egypt, was the largest and most significant great library of the ancient world.

rights works to ensure that the rights of cultural minorities, immigrants, the homeless, the disabled, lgbtq community, as well as other marginalized groups are not infringed upon as protected in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Contents History edit main article: History of libraries Early libraries edit The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing —the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in temple rooms in Sumer, 3 4 some dating back to 2600. 5 These archives, which mainly consisted of the records of commercial transactions or inventories, mark the end of prehistory and the start of history. 6 7 Things were much the same in the government and temple records on papyrus of Ancient Egypt. 4 The earliest discovered private archives were kept at Ugarit ; besides correspondence and inventories, texts of myths may have been standardized practice-texts for teaching new scribes. There is also evidence of libraries at Nippur about 1900 bc and those at Nineveh about 700 bc showing a library classification system. 8 over 30,000 clay tablets from the library of Ashurbanipal have been discovered at Nineveh, 9 providing modern scholars with an amazing wealth of Mesopotamian literary, religious and administrative work.

Private or personal libraries made up of written books appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century. In the 6th century, at the very close of the Classical period, the great libraries of the mediterranean world remained those of Constantinople and Alexandria. A library is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, a corporation, or a private individual. Public and institutional collections and services may be intended for use by people who choose not to—or cannot afford to—purchase an extensive collection themselves, who need material no individual can reasonably be expected to have, or who require professional assistance with their research. In addition to providing materials, libraries also provide the services of librarians parts who are experts at finding and organizing information and at interpreting information needs. Libraries often provide quiet areas for studying, and they also often offer common areas to facilitate group study and collaboration. Libraries often provide public facilities for access to their electronic resources and the Internet. Modern libraries are increasingly being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats and from many sources. They are extending services beyond the physical walls of a building, by providing material accessible by electronic means, and by providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing very large amounts of information with a variety of digital resources.

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For other uses, see, library (disambiguation). A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. 1, it provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, revelation or both. 2, a library's collection can include books, periodicals, newspapers, manuscripts, films, maps, prints, documents, microform, cds, cassettes, videotapes, dvds, blu-ray discs, e-books, audiobooks, databases, and other formats. Libraries range in size from a few shelves of books to several million items. In Latin and Greek, the idea of a bookcase is represented. Bibliotheca and, bibliothēkē (Greek: βιβλιοθήκη derivatives of these mean library in many modern languages,. The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing —the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in Sumer, some dating back to 2600.


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